Subject Name: The Changing Business Environment
M.A.F.I.A

Submitted by:Submitted to:
Nitisha AryalLecturer Ian Kirkwood Student id: 13534028

M.A.F.I.A. which stands for Microsoft, Alphabet, Facebook, Intel and Apple are the world’s largest and most valuable company. Microsoft Corporation abbreviated as MS is an American multinational technology company whose headquarter is in Redmond, Washington. Alphabet Inc is an American multinational conglomerate with headquarters in Mountain View, California. Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and flat mates. Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology based in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Microsoft develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touch screen personal computers. As of 2016, it is the world’s largest software maker by profits. Alphabet was formed through a corporate restructuring of Google on October 2, 2015 and became the parent company of Google and several former Google subsidiaries. The establishment of Alphabet was provoked by a desire to make the core Google Internet services business “cleaner and more accountable” while allowing greater autonomy to group companies that run in businesses other than Internet services. Similarly, the founders of facebook at first restricted the website’s membership to Harvard students. Later they extended it to higher education institutions in the Boston area, the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University. Facebook gradually supplemented support for students at various other universities, and ultimately to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been permitted to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws. Intel is the worlds’ second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip makers based on revenue, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, and Dell. Intel also manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Apple Company’s hardware products include the iPhone smart phone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smart watch, the Apple TV digital media player, and the HomePod smart speaker. Apple’s software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Xcode.

Microsoft provides technical reference for developers and articles for a range of Microsoft magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal (MSJ) are accessible through the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). MSDN also offers subscriptions for companies and individuals, and the more expensive subscriptions generally offer access to pre-release beta versions of Microsoft software. In April 2004 Microsoft launched a community site for developers and users, titled Channel 9, which provides a wiki and an Internet forum.  Free technical support is traditionally provided through online newsgroups, monitored by Microsoft employees; there can be several newsgroups for a single product. In June 2016, Microsoft announced a project named Microsoft Azure Information Protection which aims to assist enterprises protect their data as it moves between servers and devices.

Alphabet’s portfolio includes several industries, together with technology, life sciences, investment capital, and research. Some of its subsidiaries include Google, Calico, Chronicle, GV, CapitalG, Verily, Waymo, X, and Google Fiber. Some of the subsidiaries of Alphabet have altered their names since leaving Google and becoming part of the new parent company—Google Ventures becoming GV, Google Life Sciences becoming Verily and Google X becoming just X. Shares of Google’s stock have been converted into Alphabet stock, which trade under Google’s former ticker symbols of “GOOG” and “GOOGL”.

Facebook’s market dominance has led to international media coverage and significant reporting of its shortcomings. Noteworthy issues include Internet privacy, such as its widespread use of a “like” button on third-party websites tracking users, possible indefinite records of user information, automatic facial recognition software, and its role in the workplace, including employer-employee account disclosure. In a 2014 Huffington Post blog article entitled “Facebook: The World’s Biggest Waste of Time?” Bill Robinson stated that going on Facebook was not a productive use of time and he raised concerns about its addictive qualities. Timothy A Pychyl wrote in Psychology Today about his concerns that Facebook is leading to “technological time wasting” and procrastination. The use of Facebook can have psychological effects, including feelings of envy and strain, a lack of concentration, and social media obsession, in some cases comparable to drug addiction. Due to permitting users to circulate material by themselves, Facebook has come under scrutiny for the amount of freedom it gives users, counting copyright and intellectual property infringement, hate speech, incitement of rape and terrorism, fake news,  and crimes, murders and violent incidents live-streamed through its Facebook Live functionality.

Intel invested profoundly in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs and was known for aggressive and anti-competitive tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against AMD (Advanced Micro Devices), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.

Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung. Apple has been condemned for its unethical business practices such as anti-competitive behavior, rash litigation, and doubtful tax tactics, their production methods involving the use of sweatshop labor, customer service issues involving misleading warranties and insufficient data security, as well as its products’ environmental footprint. Apple’s products have been asserted by critics to combine stolen and/or purchased designs that it claims are its own innovative creations. Additionally, it has also been criticized for its alleged teamwork with the U.S. surveillance program PRISM. However, Apple is a collaborator of (PRODUCT)RED, a fundraising campaign for AIDS charity. In November 2014, Apple arranged for all App Store revenue in a two-week period to go to the fundraiser, generating more than US$20 million, and in March 2017, it released an iPhone 7 with a red color finish. Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural calamities.

In this modern era of globalization and technical innovation, M.A.F.I.A has become one of the indispensible means of our everyday lives. Moreover, it has tremendously aided in the technological development. These modern technologies have made the world smaller place to live by connecting people from every corner of the earth. Despite having some of its negative impacts, the improvement it has made in every sector has greatly helped to enhance the knowledge, attitude, skill and capacity of the people. These technologies have taken our lives to the next level.

References:
“Market Cap Rankings”. Ycharts. Zacks Investment Research. April 8, 2012. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2012.

“The World’s Biggest Public Companies”. Forbes. Retrieved January 26, 2017
“SEC Filing (Form 8-K) by Alphabet Inc”. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. October 2, 2015.

 “Google to be part of new holding company, ‘Alphabet'”. Retrieved August 11, 2015
Page, Larry. “G is for Google”. Google Official Blog. Retrieved August 11,2015.

Google creates new parent company called Alphabet”. CNET.com. Archived from the original on September 17, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2015.

 “Bye bye Google, hello Alphabet”. The Express Tribune. Pakistan: The Express Tribune News Network. Reuters. October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.

“Bye bye Google, hello Alphabet”. Saudi Gazette. October 3, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.

“10-K Annual Report”. SEC Filings. Facebook. January 28, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017
Vanian, Jonathan. “Samsung Dethrones Intel As World’s Biggest Chip Maker”. Fortune.

 “Intel 2007 Annual Report” (PDF). Intel. 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2011.

“Apple Form 10-K Annual Report” (PDF). November 3, 2017.

Metz, Cade. “A New Company Called Alphabet Now Owns Google”. Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved August 13, 2015.

“How Facebook Breeds Jealousy”. Seeker. Group Nine Media. February 10, 2010. Retrieved June 3,2017.

Matyszczyk, Chris (August 11, 2009). “Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous”. CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Ngak, Chenda (November 27, 2012). “Facebook may cause stress, study says”. CBS News. CBS. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Smith, Dave (November 13, 2015). “Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less stressed, study says”. Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Bugeja, Michael J. (January 23, 2006). “Facing the Facebook”. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Hough, Andrew (April 8, 2011). “Student ‘addiction’ to technology ‘similar to drug cravings’, study finds”. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

“Facebook and Twitter ‘more addictive than tobacco and alcohol'”. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. February 1, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Duncan, Geoff (June 17, 2010). “Open letter urges Facebook to strengthen privacy”. Digital Trends. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Paul, Ian (June 17, 2010). “Advocacy Groups Ask Facebook for More Privacy Changes”. PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Aspen, Maria (February 11, 2008). “How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2017. Anthony, Sebastian (March 19, 2014). “Facebook’s facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now?”.  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ExtremeTech” o “ExtremeTech” ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis. Retrieved June 3,2017.

 Gannes, Liz (June 8, 2011). “Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe”. CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Friedman, Matt (March 21, 2013). “Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates’ Facebook accounts is headed to governor”. NJ.com. Advance Digital. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Robinson, Bill (February 10, 2014). “Facebook: The World’s Biggest Waste of Time?”. www.huffingtonpost.com. Huffington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2018.

 Pychyl, Timothy (April 3, 2008). “Facebook—a Whole New World of Wasting Time If you’re serious about procrastination—Facebook!”. www.psychologytoday.com. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 3, 2018.

“MSDN Subscription FAQ”. Microsoft. Retrieved July 3, 2006.

“Microsoft Systems Journal Homepage”. Microsoft. April 15, 2004. Retrieved August 18,2008.

 Hobson, Neville (April 11, 2005). “Microsoft’s Channel 9 And Cultural Rules”. WebProNews. iEntry Inc. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved July 3,2006.

 “On10.net homepage”. Microsoft. Archived from the original on April 28, 2006. Retrieved May 4, 2006.

 Bray, Hiawatha (June 13, 2005). “Somehow, Usenet lumbers on”. The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2006.

Goodin, Dan (September 23, 1998). “Microsoft’s holy war on Java”. news.com. CNET News.com. Retrieved January 7, 2008.

 Graham, Lea (December 14, 1998). “USA versus Microsoft: the fourth week”. BBC News. Retrieved January 7, 2008.

“Apple Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Nov 3, 2017”. secdatabase.com. Retrieved Apr 23, 2018.

Orlowski, Andrew (May 4, 2006), “Apple sues itself in the foot (again)”, The Register
 “The Stark Reality of iPod’s Chinese Factories”, Daily Mail, London, August 18, 2006
 Musgrove, Mike (June 16, 2006), “Sweatshop Conditions at IPod Factory Reported”, The Washington Post
 Kahney, Leander (June 13, 2006), “Judging Apple Sweatshop Charge”, Wired
 Christoph Dernbach (June 12, 2008), Steve Jobs: Good artists copy great artists steal, retrieved December 11, 2016
 “Mergers & Acquisitions”. aaplinvestors.net. Retrieved December 11, 2016.

 Orlowski, Andrew (September 13, 2005), “Apple shot first, asked question later, say sued sites”, The Register
 Flores, Marc, Over 5000 apps stricken from the Apple app store, new rules in place, MobileCrunch, February 20, 2010.

“Microsoft announces new data protection tool to help enterprises secure their data”. Tech Crunch. June 22, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.

 Setalvad, Ariha (August 7, 2015). “Why Facebook’s video theft problem can’t last”. The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 “Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech”. BBC News. BBC. March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Toor, Amar (September 15, 2015). “Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech”. The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Sherwell, Philip (October 16, 2011). “Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook ‘rape pages'”. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 “20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement”. The Times of Israel. October 27, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 “Israel: Facebook’s Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands”. The Times of Israel. July 2, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Burke, Samuel (November 19, 2016). “Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news”. CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 “Hillary Clinton says Facebook ‘must prevent fake news from creating a new reality'”. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. June 1, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Fiegerman, Seth (May 9, 2017). “Facebook’s global fight against fake news”. CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Grinberg, Emanuella; Said, Samira (March 22, 2017). “Police: At least 40 people watched teen’s sexual assault on Facebook Live”. CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Grinberg, Emanuella (January 5, 2017). “Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4 arrests”. CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

 Sulleyman, Aatif (April 27, 2017). “Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh”. The Independent. Retrieved June 3, 2017.

Chmielewski, Dawn (December 17, 2014). “Apple’s Holiday Product Red Campaign Raises $20 Million for AIDS Research”. Recode. Retrieved April 18, 2017.

 Clover, Juli (December 17, 2014). “Apple’s (Product) RED Holiday Campaign Raised $20 Million to Fight AIDS”. MacRumors. Retrieved April 18, 2017.

 Miller, Chance (March 21, 2017). “Apple officially announces (RED) iPhone 7 ; 7 Plus, updated iPhone SE with double the storage”. 9to5Mac. Retrieved April 18, 2017.

 Warren, Tom (March 21, 2017). “Apple launches red iPhone 7”. The Verge. Retrieved April 18, 2017.