Philosophy according to Wikitopedia is the study of meaning and justification of beliefs about the most general or universal aspects of things. It is usually a study carried not by experimentation or careful observation but by formulating problems carefully offering solutions to them, giving arguments solutions. Therefore, this paper discusses different definitions of the different types of expressive Art such as music, Art and design, and physical education. It explains and gives examples of what different philosophers consider the work of Art and outlines the importance of these different contributory subjects of expressive Art.
According to a research project (Whole Child Left Behind, 2018), Expressive Art can be a primary tool for self-discovery and self-actualization. Expressive Art is a practice of imagery, storytelling, dance, music, drama, and poetry and so on. In primary schools, Expressive Art is divided into Art, music, and physical education.
However, there is much debate about what Art is among different scholars. According to Britannica, Art is a creation of significant and beautiful things related to aesthetics, others argue it is not only beautiful things. Leo Tolsky argues that Art is an activity by which a person, having experienced an emotion, intentionally transmits to others. Elbert Hubbard ( ) defines Art not to be a thing but a way. Additionally, other scholars refer to Art as a way of life, they say that Art is more than a skill but a passion that someone has. Philosophers believe that great Art elaborates meaningful stories. According to ( ) the work of Art usually satisfies one as a sense of beauty. However, philosophers of Art have one thing in common which they consider Art. They believe that a work of Art is a human-made thing.
To begin with, Music is a contributory subject that adds to expressive Art. According to Most of Music Text books ( ), music may be defined as a second sequence that presents elements such as melody, harmony, and rhythm. Jerrold Levinson defines music as organized sound. John ( ) instigates that music is one of the first Art forms to be thought of as non-representational and that it has a stronger universal connection to the emotions than other non-presentational forms like abstract visual Arts. Thus, music is considered an important part of society around the world. Moreover, music is shown to be beneficial to students in four major categories: success in society, success in school, success in developing intelligence, and success in life. Select examples of each of these benefit groupings are offered from cited publications and testimony of various experts. It is believed that music has the ability to affect emotions, intellect, and psychology. Nevertheless, it can either cause loneliness or incite passion as well. According to Plato, music has a direct effect on the soul, for this reason, he proposed that music is regulated by the state in the ideal regime (Book VII). Just as in Zambia, public music is supposed to be regulating (music played in public through the media like on television. At one time, a song entitled ‘Ba Pastor Changwe” by Peter Kalumba Chishala was prohibited to play in public. In recent years, philosophers have tended to emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment, for example, music’s capacity to express emotions has been a central issue. Just like Art, philosophers consider music vital in life; they believe it as well begins from childhood, for example, music is used to persuade children to go to sleep, walk (lullabies), and it is used on different occasions, like ceremonies, funerals, parties and so on. Concisely, music is perceived to be an essential component in the upbringing of a child and development of every human being.
Furthermore, philosophers agree that music also aids in conveying cultural heritage to the coming generation just as Art does. They also agree that music helps people in relaxing, and that participation provides a unique opportunity for literacy preparation. This means therefore, that it helps in developing language and reasoning, for example, as children learn music, they may comprehend the language, and in school, beginners learn the song ‘Drive the car’ where they learn the vocabulary like driving, hooting and so on.
Plato asserted that music is an important aspect of education, in his scheme of education where he laid emphasis on three disciplines, ‘Gymnastic for the training and development of the body, Mathematics for training and development of the brain, and finally, music for the realization of the soul. Music therefore connects people with the real self that is the soul, while listening to relaxing music; people tend to begin the journey inward. According to ( ) the melodious notes of music have the capacity to cure the mental, physical fatigue of a weary person. Moreover, music is believed to have miraculous powers to treat certain mental ailments such as anxiety, abnormal excitement, or depression. Music can alter one’s emotions and uplift the spirit. It helps to connect with the deeper self and bring about emotions to the fore. Music helps to dissolve the physical boundaries of the nations; it removes barriers of age, language and speaks to everyone, it washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life and inspires one to live a loft life.
The power and pervasiveness of the aesthetic experiences found in the visual Arts contribute to the quality of life. The visual Arts embody physical, cultural, and spiritual aspects of life. They function as an important communication system through which meanings are construed in ways that are different from other language systems. Moreover, the study of the visual Arts helps students explore insights and attitudes towards the world and human experience that cannot be explored through other means. The study of the visual Arts contributes to the development of cognitive abilities that are particularly relevant in that it invites imaginative and diverse perspectives and interpretations. The study of the visual Arts promotes the development of abilities to think beyond right-or-wrong modes of inquiry, and the capacity to deal with multiple perspectives, make judgments in ambiguous situations, understand the relationships between parts to whole, and solve qualitative problems, and exercise self-monitoring and self-awareness. Studying the visual Arts develops individual and social values. One of the ways human beings come to understand each other better is by creating and sharing their own values and culture through Art. Students’ pursuit of Artwork in diverse social and cultural contexts contributes to the cultivation of an interest in other people and their cultures, and an appreciation of these.
Additionally, the cross curricular links between the visual Arts and other Key Learning Areas strengthen the learning process. Many students learn best when presented with multi-modal information such as is often found in the subject of Visual Arts. The development of reading, writing, and verbal language skills enhances students’ abilities to investigate and discuss the visual Arts with teachers and peers, thus strengthening their critical appreciation and their Artistic production. Studying in the visual Arts stretches and nurtures the aesthetic potential of young people and enables them to participate in the fast growing creative industries of Hong Kong. There is a wide range of visual Arts-related creative industries, including professional fine Art, visual communication, fashion, industrial design, interior decoration, creative crafts, museum and gallery curatorial work, photojournalism, advertising, film and video production, Art, and film criticism, architecture, and cultural history. The skills and abilities developed through studying the visual Arts can be applied in many aspects of daily life and work. Visual communication skills help people to present their ideas more clearly at work. Heightened sensitivity and observation skills enable people to care more about visual detail, thus enabling them to make greater efforts in the pursuit of a quality life.
Physical education is another contributory subject of expressive Art. It is defined as a process of learning which uses physical activities and the whole being as the mechanism of learning. It involves the development and maintenance of the body through activities, thus, it covers the field of physical activity. Physical education contributes to the development of problem solving skills and development of interpersonal skills.
The philosophy behind P.E is to help one develop socially, mentally, emotionally, intellectually and culturally. Philosophers believe that P.E helps learners to choose alternative learning styles, interests, and problems. Moreover, it also helps learners to discover their hidden and developed sources of inherited skills and ability to make them become aware of them and develop confidence in them. Philosophers also believe that P.E helps in the development of organic power that is health and physical fitness necessary to meet physiological demands of the body. P.E helps in developing non-muscular skills such as co-ordination, timing which leads to proficiency in a series of movement. Philosophers in P.E previously used P.E as training to prepare for war, develop social desired attitudes, self-confidence, initiative, self-direction, and feeling of sense of belonging. P.E helps to develop intellectual awareness just as Art and design does. It helps to develop safety skills as well, for example in sport, ‘Karate’, is taught to acquire skills of defending oneself. Physical education helps one to improve judgment. Moreover, quality physical education can influence moral development to assume leadership. Co-operation with others, question actions and regularities and accepts responsibility for their own behavior. Like with music, P.E also reduces stress. It becomes an outlet for releasing tension, anxieties and facilitates emotional stability and resilience. P.E can as well strengthen peer relationship this because participating in sports with other people fosters relationships.