Other than that, as we move in the millennial era, we have been involved in producing high technology to make better world. Then, there are technology which is will be used to make desalination. Desalination is a process removing salt and other mineral to create fresh and drinkable water. This process always involve by seawater. According to Khawaji, Khutubkhanah and Wie (2008), ‘a seawater desalination process separates saline seawater into two streams which is a fresh water stream containing a low concentration of dissolved salts and a concentrated brine stream’. This technology is developed for the ship that sails in the sea for a long time which is have limited of clean water. Generally, these technologies suitable for the place that have far away from the land which is have limited clean water like oil rig, ship and others. We also can use this technology at land to reduce in consuming of clean water. The can place the technology near to the sea and pump the seawater as much as possible and convert it to the clean water. This is same concept which is they use wave energy from the sea to convert it into another energy that can we use like electrical energy because the wave energy is one of the renewable energy. Lastly, the product of water treatment can be useful if we use it as maximum as we can because there have a lot of benefit from using it in term of health, environment and economy.
According to the United Nations (2010), around 884 million people in the world, particularly country such as Mozambique, walk more than 1 kilometer to the water source and use less than 5 liters of unsafe water every day. This poor and unclean water makes it difficult especially for children, in Senegal alone, half of the schools had no water and had no sanitation facilities and cause dehydrated and unable to concentrate for students. In water rich country, the consumption of water is 210 liters per capita per day in Malaysia that is 27% higher than water consumption recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) that is only 165 liters per capita per day (Jye, 2017).
The effective water regulation and policy is a big component for health protection. A systematic surveys on the community facilities in the aspect of drinking-water system that should cover the water sources, transmission infrastructure, treatment plants, storage reservoirs and distribution systems. Microbial contamination can threaten public health. So, water suppliers should boil water or do other measures before being distribute to the communities. It is important that water suppliers take full responsibilities at all times for the quality and safety of water that produced, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, (n.d.), 2006, p.8-9.
The regulations can solve the water scarcity problems. Aspects that need attention such as water reuse, water resource management, water rights, industrial water use, wetland restoration, domestic water supplies, water pollution, and others. Water management has the capability of addressing human interventions and the various natural events in connection with resources and the long-term water policy decisions on the environment and economy. Water management can only be seen effecting the environment and economy in long-term (Madaan, 2016).
Significant water management have been associated with insufficient plumbing systems within public and private buildings. Millions of liters of water are lost every yeardue to leakages and sewer contamination, creating water shortages. These problem are causeby poor design, incorrect installation, alterations and poor maintenance(Madaan, 2016).A bad plumbing system can lead to huge wasting of water, for example, if the pipes carrying clean water is made from inappropriate materials, it can cause bacterial growth. Leaking pipes and sewage systems also lead to water contamination. To achieve a good plumbing system, the pipes need to be are watertight, durable, of smooth and clean interior and protected against anticipated stresses and across connections between the clean water supply and the wastewater removal systems do not occur, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, (n.d.), 2006, p.17.
Water conservation is one of the leading ways to solve water scarcity problem.Water conservation is the practice of using water efficiently to reduce unnecessary water usage. Water is a vital element to all of life on earth, from trees to animal to human, especially fresh clean water. To avoid wasting water, one must first be aware of how much of water he or she use. So in making water conservation a success, every individual must be responsible for their water usage. There are many ways to conserve water such as, do not let the water flow while brushing teeth, soaping or shampooing. Collecting rainwater is can be beneficial for outdoor uses such as gardening and washing cars. Even, the usage of low flush toilet for urinals can save up to 30% of water when using toilet (Jye, 2017).
Overpopulation will also cause the increases competitiveness for the resource that will also lead to the growths of crime rates. Country with overpopulation problem usually has high crime rate compare to countries that has balance population, this is because when all the basic necessities are provided there are no reason for crimes. Education does not only equip the individual with knowledge but also make the individual become more patient (Becker, 1997). Individual with a quality education are wiser in decision making, he or she will able to predict what the consequences will be from their criminal activities to their surrounding and themselves (Hjalmarsson, 2012).
Currently, India is the second most populated country in the world after China but it is expected to surpass China by 2022 where the growth rate develop naturally. This is happening because, of the China’s most controversial policies in its modern history which is “One-Child Policy” that has been introduced since 1979 and it recently being replace with “Two-Chile Policy” in 2015. This “One-Child Policy”help to control and reduce population gradually. It is estimated that around 400 million births were prevented by this policy according to the Chinese government (Gordon, 2016). Birth control is a long term plan which will takes decades to see the result but this is the fastest and the most effective ways to control and limiting the population.
Finally, common related problem to the overpopulation is hunger. This can be proven by rapid population growth at the East Side have caused famine there unavoidable. This statement can be support by ‘It’s no good blaming climate change or food shortages or political corruption. Sorry to be neo-Malthusian about it, but continuing population growth in this region makes periodic famine unavoidable’ (Porrit, 2011). These problems cause by lack of food, lack of clean water, invasion of land and other. Growth rate that have been increase through the year is one of the cause to this problem. When the population already exceeds the source of food, there will be more people hunger. This problem can lead to increase in the number of death. For this problem, we can use clean meat to solve rising global demand for protein. Clean meat known as lab grown which is meat that grown in cell culture rather than in an animal body (Cassiday, 2018). This is also one of the technologies that have been developed to carrying the capacity of human through this year. These step to meet with the demanding to the protein which is lead to the hunger problem. There are some of the benefit from doing this activity which is includes sustainability, environment, animal welfare and food safety. According to United State Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report that worldwide meet consumption will increase up to 73% . Other than that we can implement a solution would have been in subtitle plant or insect based proteins for human diet. Protein are source that needed by the body of human. It is to gain energy and stay in good health. Protein is important because in order to repair the muscle or skin, this protein will help to recover from the injury in short time. It is also use for hormone production, enzyme and immune function.
Transgenic crops are the future of food. Water is the main issue in crop production, 70% of global fresh water is use in crops, hence it is important in order to develop a higher performance crops. Traditional approaches of growing are limited due to area and water availability, whereas biotechnology crops offers innovation potential. These technologies are efficient as the overpopulation itself have cause water scarcity problem globally. Moreover, these technologies can be implement to countries that in dry climate regions.
In the nutshell, solving overpopulation problem will be much less difficult when we stop increasing the number of people affected by them, in easy way to understand, we have to control our rate of growth. “We cannot live sustainably with 7.2 billion people, how we are going to support billion more by the end of the century?” (William Ryerson, 2015). Even with our number right now, we face difficulties to sustain lives, imagine if there are larger population, we will at our wits’ end. The problem – overpopulation need to be prevent by all kind layers of the community constantly to make it work.