One of the attempts to approach the understanding of the mechanisms of aging is the hypothesis of programmed aging that we develop in the last few years. Still II Mechnikov considered old age as a giant atrophy”The body’s body. Along with the death of cells of the brain, liver, muscles and other organs, during aging, the cells of connective tissue multiply, activate their activity, which is expressed in the production of intercellular substance, from which various connective tissue fibers are formed. Now the conclusion is clear to many: to find mechanisms of aging of multicellular organisms is to find out the causes that cause the damage and death of some cells and the multiplication and activation of others. The whole amount of known data indicates that the activation of connective tissue in old age is somehow connected with the death of functionally important cells of tissues or organs. Consequently, the main issue of gerontology, from our point of view, Cell death , as is well known, occurs at all stages of the ontogenesis of the individual: both in embryogenesis, in reproductive and post-production periods. Aging is the consequence of this cell death. If at the initial stage (in embryogenesis) the death of cells provides a normal course of morphogenesis, then in the postnatal period, when the morphogenesis decays, the death and damage of cells and the interstitial and interorganic interrelations arising from these phenomena cause that weakening of the organism’s viability, which we call aging.
Accidental death and damage to cells are caused by the action of numerous physical and chemical agents that can lead to mutation or non-hereditary damage to cells of varying severity. Genetically caused death of somatic cells arises as a result of manifestation of gametogenic somatic mutations at a given stage of the body’s development, as a result of the action of special lethal genes, as well as fenkosomes, provided by the ontogenesis program. It should also be taken into account that the degree of resistance of cells of organisms of this species to the damaging effect of external and internal factors is also genetically determined. If the differentiated cell does not die from accidental causes , it can die as a result of the action of the programmed factors. Not all cells perish during the life of an individual of this species – only a part of the cells die, but this is enough to weaken the homeostasis of the organism and lead it to death from the action of a wide variety of external and internal factors that were not previously lethal. The gametogenic somatic mutations , lethal genes and fenkosomes cause the existence in the cells of the peculiar genetic mechanisms of cell damage and death, which we called the “genetic clock of death”. Some authors believe that physiological regeneration , including the destruction of cells or their organelles, constantly occurs in organs of the adult organism such as the brain, liver, muscles, and the true (apocrine) glands. What are the mechanisms of the genetic ” hours of death ” that cause age-related damage and cell death? To answer this question, one should turn to the consideration of gametogenic somatic mutations, lethal genes and fenkosomes. Gametogenic somatic mutations (GSM) arise as a result of the transfer of damaged DNA molecules or chromosomes from the germinal germ cells to mature gametes, zygotes and then somatic cells. Petroleum products, depending on the degree of their expressiveness, penetrance, can manifest themselves in different phases of the individual development of the organism: during the period of morphogenesis, in the reproductive and post-productive periods.