College Papers

No title Introduction In biology

No title
Introduction
In biology, there are organic molecules that eukaryotic cells use to survive. Organic molecules are compounds made up of two or more carbons as well as hydrogen. The molecules that the body uses to work are typically carbohydrates, lipids(fats), nucleic acids, and proteins. All organic molecules coexist to aid the body in various tasks. A major key player among the four are enzymes that make the body function. “Most enzymes are composed of protein. Held together by peptide bonds and hydrogen bonds”(Mason). Proteins are made of the monomer amino acids, which have to go through a dehydration synthesis to make the polymer polypeptide chain. Amino acids are typically made up of a carboxyl group, amino group, and an R group They are so important because all enzymes have a specific function, which means they cannot functions in specific environments.
If an enzyme exposed to more heat than it can hand, it will begin to denature. What this means is the structures are break down and altered making the enzyme not function. In, the website Royal Society of Chemistry they write “Each enzyme works within quite a small pH range. There is a pH at which its activity is greatest (optimal pH). This is because changes in pH can make and break intermolecular bonds, changing the shape of the enzyme and, therefore, its effectiveness”(Royal Society of Chemistry). Temperature is another variable that needs to be taken into consideration. Every specific enzyme has an ideal temperature, cap if it goes past that it will denature. A good example is enzymes that function in the stomach have a higher pH resistance than any other enzymes.
According, to some “Enzymes, are characterized by two fundamental properties. First, they increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being consumed or permanently altered by the reaction. Second, they increase reaction rates without altering the chemical equilibrium between reactants and products”(Cooper). The enzyme does this by lowering the activation energy need for a chemical reaction. In order for a chemical to occur a substrate has to enter a specific area to activate the reaction. The active site is a groove that allows a substrate to bind together. No two substrates are able to bind to a different active site, on the enzyme. This allows them to recognize each other and only bind to their specific active site. In lab procedure 5.2 the enzymes catalase obtained from potato cells was the test in this experiment. The catalase enzyme is the active site that binds to catalyze hydrogen peroxide this causes the reaction to produce oxygen and water. This experiment tests”at what temperature do potato enzymes work most efficient?. From looks of the enzyme, the boiling water(65°c) and incubator(2°c) will likely denature the catalase. Hypothesis: The ice bath temperature is likely to make the potato enzyme more active.
Procedure
This experiment required equipment set up primarily the ice water bath(4 °C), incubator(29 °C) and boiling water(65 °C). Especially the boiling water because water takes time to boil so start that right away. Three test tubes are gonna be needed so label them 1-3, with a wax pencil should be marked to the 1 cm mark and again to the 5 cm from the bottom up. Catalase should be added to the 1 cm to all test tubes, the 5 cm mark should be ignored at the moment. Make sure to place test tube 1 in the ice water, tube 2 goes in the incubator, and tube 3 to boiling water. Keep the three test tube in each chamber for 15 minutes. Makes sure to time the test tube for only 15 minutes, if not they catalase may denature. If that happens the result may show the wrong measurements. After the 15 minutes are up, remove test tubes and prepare to add the hydrogen peroxide. This part is important not to add the hydrogen peroxide to all the test tubes at the same time. The reaction is instantaneous, so make sure get it right the first time. Slowly add the hydrogen peroxide to the test tubes while at the same time swirling the test tube. This allows the content to fully mix in the test tube. After the reaction has occurred measure the height of the bubbles in mm. Only measure the bubbles after 20 seconds any measurement after that may result in the wrong measurements. The measurement within the 20-second mark is roughly accurate. Those are the measurements needed so write them down, as well as the numbers needed to make the graph.