Name: Shanaaz Hajaree
Student No: 62891278
Unique No: 733684
Module: AFL1502 Assignment No: 01
Question 1
Ubuntu may be interpreted as a system of values that affects all facets of life. Do you
agree? Give examples from 5 different facets of “everyday” life to support your answer.
Yes. Ubuntu is a Nguni Bantu word meaning “humanity”. It is often translated as “I am because
we are,” and “humanity towards others”, but is often used in a more philosophical sense to
mean “the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity” (Wikipedia)
Former president Nelson Mandela and former Archbishop Desmond Tutu are most commonly
associated with the philosophy of Ubuntu.
Examples of five (5) different facets of ‘everyday’ life.
? Respect and dignity – Respect for others, their values, different religions and the
various cultures.
? Charity – To give generously to the needy. To share what we have with those less
fortunate than ourselves for example, a feeding scheme to feed the needy.
? Forgiveness – To not bear any grudges and to live in peace, love and harmony with
one another.
? A simple act of kindness. Be it a smile or a humble greeting in a person’s mother
tongue.
? No matter what colour, race, standard or background you come from Ubuntu stresses
that we live together in harmony, peace and be trustworthy and faithful to each other.
Question 2
a) Write down 2 characteristics of vowels and 2 characteristics of consonants in your
African language and explain how these two types of sounds differ.
Vowels
1) Always voiced, pronounced relatively unhindered or unimpeded through the mouth
(orally)
2) They move out over the middle of the tongue (medially)

Consonants
1) They maybe voiced or voiceless and the airstream used to form or articulate
them is either totally cut off by means of speech organs.
2) Consonants may be formed through the mouth, that is orally or through the nose,
and they may be released over the middle of the tongue, that is medially.
The sound difference between the vowels and consonants are vowels are always voiced.
Whereas with consonants some are voiced, and some are voiceless.
b) Choose the sentence from the African language of your choice and then answer the
questions:
IsiZulu: Umama upheke uphuthu izolo ntambama.
i) The subject concord is Umama. A subject concord is used to make sure that the
subject agrees with the rest of the sentence. All subject concords are derived from
the class prefix of the noun.
ii) The Zulu noun consists of 2 essential parts, the prefix and the stem. Nouns are
grouped in different noun classes. The 2 nouns in the sentence above is:
Umama – noun. Falls into class 1a – 2a (u-/o-) Mainly proper names and
relationship terms. In the case of Umama (Mother) is singular hence, it
will fall in class 1a (U-).
Uphuthu – noun. Falls in class 11 and 10 (ulu-/izin-) Variety of objects.
iii) The verb is Upheke (Cooked). The suffix is a perfect suffix (-ile). Two concepts are
expressed by this suffix:
1) An action in time indicating a completed or terminated action and
2) A timeless action indicating that a person or object is in a specific state,
condition or position.
‘u’ – subject concord + phek (verb) + ‘e’ as perfect suffix.
Question 3
a) Look at the sentence above in your chosen African language in Question 2 (a) above.
Identify the subject, predicate, and object in the sentence and then explain how a
sentence is constructed in your African language.
Subject – Umama (mother)
Predicate – Upheke uphuthu izolo ntambama (cooked porridge yesterday evening)
Object – Uphuthu (porridge)

Syntax is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a
language. A sentence in Isizulu must always include a subject, predicate and object.
b) Select the word from your chosen African language below and then explain the
construction of deverbatives by referring to this word:
Isizulu – Umfundisi
Umfundisi (Teacher) – Personal deverbative. The class prefix is placed in front of the
verb root and a personal deverbative suffix at the back. Umfundisi is constructed the
following way: Um(Prefix) + funda(Verb) + isi (suffix).
c) Nouns in the African languages may be described by means of a variety of other word
categories. Show how this may take place by supplying 4 examples of your own and
discussing each of them.
1) The Pronoun
The pronoun may be used to represent a noun or to describe it in terms of position.
There are 3 different types of pronouns:
The absolute pronoun
Eg: Ubiza wena na? (Does he call you?)
The Demonstrative pronoun
Eg: Umkhonto uwele laphaya (The spear fell there yonder)
The possessive pronoun
E.g.: Umfundo yethu (Our education)
2) The Adjective
The adjective qualifies the noun by adding an additional quality, characteristic, feature
or attribute to the meaning of a noun.
E.g.: Amehlo amabili (Two eyes)
3) The Possessive
The possessive construction consists of a possession + a possessive concord + a
possessor.
E.g.: Ihashi nokudla kwalo (The horse and its food)
4) The Locative
When an idea of place or locality is expressed regarding proper names, nouns
indicating persons, pronouns etc.
E.g.: Kubaba (by father)

Reference:
African Languages and Culture in Practice – Tutorial letter 102/2/2018
Ubuntu Philosophy – Wikipedia
Accessed from – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu_philosophy#Definition