METHODOLOGY
4.1 IntroductionThis chapter identifies and describes the research paradigms that have been selected for the research. The epistemological and interpretative perspectives underlying the methodology are also discussed to address the research questions and the kinds of research outcomes that these perspectives support. The research design justifies why the mixed method approach is suited ideally to address the research questions. The remainder of this chapter gives a detailed account on the methodology adopted and data analysis techniques administered for this study. Finally, this chapter concludes by presenting the ethical considerations that would be observed during fieldwork.
4.2Research ParadigmThe first step in research was to explain the ‘world views’ or ‘paradigm’ that directs the research. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Gregg</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>344</RecNum><DisplayText>Gregg, Kulkarni, and Vinzé (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>344</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>344</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gregg, Dawn G</author><author>Kulkarni, Uday R</author><author>Vinzé, Ajay S</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Understanding the philosophical underpinnings of software engineering research in information systems</title><secondary-title>Information Systems Frontiers</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Information Systems Frontiers</full-title></periodical><pages>169-183</pages><volume>3</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>1387-3326</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Gregg, Kulkarni, and Vinzé (2001) argues that paradigm is the perspective taken when drawing knowledge from the physical and social world. In simple terms, the “paradigm” is the fundamental view of how we perceive our reality ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Goles</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>347</RecNum><DisplayText>(Goles &amp; Hirschheim, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>347</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>347</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Goles, Tim</author><author>Hirschheim, Rudy</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The paradigm is dead, the paradigm is dead… long live the paradigm: the legacy of Burrell and Morgan</title><secondary-title>Omega</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Omega</full-title></periodical><pages>249-268</pages><volume>28</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><isbn>0305-0483</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Goles & Hirschheim, 2000). In terms of research on Women Political Participation and decision-making, interpretivism and constructivism are the two major research paradigms. The paradigm of the interpretivist approach suggests it is impossible to separate facts from values and the inherent subjectivity in any research conducted in relation to people and to the social world ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kincheloe</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>355</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kincheloe, McLaren, &amp; Steinberg, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>355</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>355</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kincheloe, Joe L</author><author>McLaren, Peter</author><author>Steinberg, Shirley R</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Norman K. Denzin</author><author>Yvonna S. Lincoln</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Critical pedagogy and qualitative research</title><secondary-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</full-title></periodical><pages>163-177</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kincheloe, McLaren, & Steinberg, 2011).

From the interpretivist perspective, causal relationships are simply another, possible construction or explanation for certain aspects of the social world that we are researching. Rather than seeking a ‘true’ match between our research observations and reality, the interpretivist paradigm understands reality as being constructed in and through our observations and pursuit of knowledge ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bowen</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>356</RecNum><DisplayText>(Bowen, 2009; Kincheloe et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>356</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>356</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bowen, Glenn A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Document analysis as a qualitative research method</title><secondary-title>Qualitative research journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Qualitative research journal</full-title></periodical><pages>27-40</pages><volume>9</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>1443-9883</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Kincheloe</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>355</RecNum><record><rec-number>355</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>355</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kincheloe, Joe L</author><author>McLaren, Peter</author><author>Steinberg, Shirley R</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Norman K. Denzin</author><author>Yvonna S. Lincoln</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Critical pedagogy and qualitative research</title><secondary-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</full-title></periodical><pages>163-177</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bowen, 2009; Kincheloe et al., 2011). In this study, Women Political Participation is not only undermined by biases, due to its specific nature of implementation and application and the involvement of power relations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chambers</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>69</RecNum><DisplayText>(Chambers, 1997)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>69</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>69</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chambers, Robert</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Whose Reality Counts: Putting The First Last</title></titles><dates><year>1997</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>ITDG Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Chambers, 1997) but also by gaps between constitutional provisions of Women Political Participation in Political Parties, actual practices, different paradoxes and barriers that this research aims to explore. Hence, it can be argued that an actual understanding of Women Political Participation and the intricacies involved call for the information congregated to be interpreted and then re-interpreted as suggested by ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Sayer</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>265</RecNum><DisplayText>Sayer (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>265</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>265</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sayer, A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Realism and Social Science.</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Sayer (2000), ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Gray</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>138</RecNum><DisplayText>Gray (2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>138</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>138</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gray, David E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Doing research in the real world</title></titles><edition>Third</edition><dates><year>2013</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><isbn>1446296172</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Gray (2013) and ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Fay</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>114</RecNum><DisplayText>Fay (2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>114</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>114</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fay, B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Contemporary Philosophy of Social Science</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Blackwell Publishing</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Fay (2004).
As for the constructivist approach, this paradigm is founded on the assumption that, there are multiple versions of reality and as a result there can be no singular truth (Guba and Lincoln, 1994). Asserted by Guba and Lincoln (1994), the “realities are apprehendable in the form of multiple, intangible mental constructions, socially and experimentally based, local and specific in nature and dependent for their form and content on the individual person or groups holding the constructions.”
The interpretivist/constructivist paradigm proposed that people construct knowledge in social settings ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gregg</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>344</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gregg et al., 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>344</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>344</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gregg, Dawn G</author><author>Kulkarni, Uday R</author><author>Vinzé, Ajay S</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Understanding the philosophical underpinnings of software engineering research in information systems</title><secondary-title>Information Systems Frontiers</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Information Systems Frontiers</full-title></periodical><pages>169-183</pages><volume>3</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>1387-3326</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gregg et al., 2001). Therefore, the interpretivist/constructive’ study attempts to attain complete and broader understanding of people’s daily life to recognize the models, practices and traditions of their society. According to Gregg et al. (2001), the interpretivist/constructivist’ paradigm allows the researcher to construct new concepts based on observing the needs and relationships and experiences of others. The adoption of interpretivist/constructivist paradigm in this study will help the researcher to ascertain the barriers and paradoxes that affect the Women Political Participation and decision-making in the political parties of Pakistan
The next section will outline the research design for this study.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

4.3Research DesignResearch design is the course of an entire research process in a systematic way ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Creswell;/Author;;Year;2014;/Year;;RecNum;92;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Creswell, 2014);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;92;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;92;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Creswell, John W;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A concise introduction to mixed methods research;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2014;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Los Angeles;/pub-location;;publisher;SAGE Publications;/publisher;;isbn;1483359050;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Creswell, 2014). It shows specific directions for the whole research process and it must be adopted as per the nature of the research questions ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Creswell;/Author;;Year;2014;/Year;;RecNum;92;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Creswell, 2014; Creswell ;amp; Clark, 2011; Leech ;amp; Onwuegbuzie, 2009);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;92;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;92;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Creswell, John W;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A concise introduction to mixed methods research;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2014;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Los Angeles;/pub-location;;publisher;SAGE Publications;/publisher;;isbn;1483359050;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Creswell;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;93;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;93;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;93;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Creswell, John W;/author;;author; Clark, Vicki L. Plano;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research;/title;;/titles;;edition;Second Edition;/edition;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Los Angeles;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage Publications, Inc.;/publisher;;isbn;9781412975179;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Leech;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;193;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;193;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;193;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Leech, Nancy L;/author;;author;Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A typology of mixed methods research designs;/title;;secondary-title;Quality ;amp; Quantity;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;265-275;/pages;;volume;43;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0033-5177;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Creswell, 2014; Creswell ; Clark, 2011; Leech ; Onwuegbuzie, 2009). Research designs are divided into outcome driven quantitative methods and process-driven qualitative methods ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Yin;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;328;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Yin, 2013);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;328;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;328;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Yin, Robert K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Case study research: Design and methods;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage publications;/publisher;;isbn;1483302008;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Yin, 2013). Most of the scholars acknowledged that appropriate methods for research should be chosen as per the objectives and nature of the research being conducted. ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;South;/Author;;Year;2004;/Year;;RecNum;282;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Kelaher et al., 2007; South, 2004);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;282;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;282;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Unpublished Work”;34;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;South, Jane;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Community-based arts for health: A literature review;/title;;tertiary-title;Centre for Health Promotion Research;/tertiary-title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2004;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Leeds;/pub-location;;publisher;Leeds Metropolitan University;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Kelaher;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;172;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;172;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;172;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Kelaher, M;/author;;author;Dunt, D;/author;;author;Berman, N;/author;;author;Joubert, L;/author;;author;Curry, S;/author;;author;Jones, R;/author;;author;Stanley, J;/author;;author;Johnson, V;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Methodological approaches to evaluating the impact of community arts on health;/title;;secondary-title;UNESCO Observatory Refereed E-Journal;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;1-20;/pages;;volume;1;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Kelaher et al., 2007; South, 2004).

Since this study attempts to measure the level challenges for Women Political Participation in the Political Parties, and to determine the challenges to Women Political Participation in the political parties of Pakistan, therefore, a case study design based on mixed methods is the most appropriate. Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting, analyzing, and integrating (or mixing) quantitative and qualitative research (and data) in a single study or a longitudinal program of inquiry PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5DcmVzd2VsbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTQ8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5DcmVzd2VsbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTQ8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Creswell, 2014; Creswell ; Clark, 2011; Denscombe, 2008; Doyle, Brady, ; Byrne, 2009; Leech ; Onwuegbuzie, 2009). ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Guion;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;145;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Guion (2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;145;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;145;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book Section”;5;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Guion, Robert M;/author;;/authors;;secondary-authors;;author;Gerald Adams;/author;;author;Michael Berzonsky;/author;;/secondary-authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Validity and reliability;/title;;secondary-title;Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;57-76;/pages;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Malden;/pub-location;;publisher;Blackwell Publishing;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Guion (2002) affirms that the significant technique to fortify the validity and reliability of the research design is by the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods through triangulation that is characterized by use of the multiple methods including statistical analysis, sampling and research instruments. The triangulation design solicits to collect the qualitative and quantitative data at the same time. Further, it requires integrating both qualitative and quantitative data for better understanding of the problem. Triangulation design suggests reporting the data into separate sections but bringing the salient points of both in the discussion and finding section. Figure 4.1 below gives an overview of the triangulation design.
342900103505Qualitative data and Results
Quantitative data and Results
Interpretation
00Qualitative data and Results
Quantitative data and Results
Interpretation

Figure 4.1. Triangulation Design, based on Creswell and Clark (2011)
This research has focused on the analyses of PML (n). By applying mixed methods, the researcher has directed all efforts to the particular selected case study.

x

Hi!
I'm Mindy!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out