College Papers

Cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, are the leading causes of 30% of the mortality in the world(1, 2) high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high total cholesterol(TC), high body mass index (BMI), high systolic blood pressure(SBP, low Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, are traditional risk factors in the development of Cardiovascular diseases (3, 4). These risk factors are also considerable because they tend to co-occur in some individuals. It has Been observed frequently that some of these risk factors tend to co- occur at the individual level(5). The available evidence indicate that having more than one risk factor, is more harmful to health than their cumulative individual effects(6). Additionally, CVD risk estimates have generally been shown to increase as the number of individual cardiovascular risk factors present increase. For example, in the Framingham Offspring Study, participants with one to two components had a hazard ratio of 1.48 (men) and 3.39 (women) for CVD, while those with three or more components had a higher hazard ratio of 3.99 (men) and 5.95 (women), compared to men and women Moreover, different cardiovascular risk factors combinations may differentially increase risk for CVD

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