Background:
Sugar- sweetened beverages are linked with weight gain and type 2 diabetes. According to an article, the spread of diabetes type 2 is increasing very rapidly. Obesity is another problem associated with the daily sugar consumption in the form of drinks. According to statistics the use of beverages containing sugar has increased up to 61% in the adults from 1977 to 1997. The use of sugar consumption in drinks is double in children from the year 1994-1998. In addition to contribute in obesity and increasing the risk of diabetes. (Schulze et al., 2004). Among sugar sweetened beverages the most popular and widely consumed by different age group of people is coffee. Caffeine is obtained from natural sources and is being consumed by people from early Palaeolithic period. Many species of plants contain different varieties of caffeine. Around 60 plants across the world have been found that produce caffeine. There are many beverages that are being produced using caffeine. Plants like guarana, yoco and mate in South America are associated with the manufacture of caffeinated drinks. The use of coffee was started in the 10th century. The use of coffee became popular in Europe in 17th century, today, Coffee is so popular that half of the U.K drinks coffee. (Todaysdietitian.com, 2018). Caffeine is also used in chocolates and is used by a wide population. According to Food and drug administration (FDA) dairy products like deserts, puddings, fillings and many baked products contain a small amount of caffeine in them which works as a flavouring agent. Caffeine is being used in medicine for its significance in treatment of many diseases. Caffeine is therapeutically used in the infant apnoea, as a stimulant for bronchial and cardiac, in skin disorders like acne and in different headaches like migraines. Many products that can easily be brought from over the counters (OTC) like diuretic, analgesics, weight controlling aids, allergy relief products and alertness compounds, contain come extent of caffeine. (Dews et al., 1984). Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most commonly used stimulant that is used worldwide on the daily basis. Caffeine is categorised as a drug because it fts into the pharmacological criteria. (C J D and J D, 2000). My business proposal is to introduce a caffeinated chewing gum, which contains caffeine as a stimulant. This product is ideal for people who are looking for a boost to start their day or so that people can use it according to their needs. The product aims to target people who are consuming coffees and other beverages as a boost in the mornings, which contains high amounts of sugars. This great amount of sugar consumption increases the chances of diabetes and obesity in the future. The aim of this product is to provide people a safe amount of caffeine and enabling them to achieve their goal which is better memory and helping them to perform their daily tasks more efficiently. The caffeinated drinks available in market are not suitable for many people because of their high sugar levels and for people like vegans or vegetarians due to the ingredients that they contain but this product is suitable for both. There are many studies that prove that the consumption of caffeine is associated with many health-related benefits for people. Caffeine is associated with weight loss and has positive impacts on memory. The product intends to improve metabolism and provide stimulant to people which will make them feel more awake and energetic. There are some companies that have already introduced caffeinated chewing gum, but my product is better because it has low caffeine levels, so it can be used by many people with different age groups and different health conditions. In addition, it is available in 3 different flavours so it can be used by people who do not like the traditional flavour of coffee. This will also enable people to keep track on their caffeine consumption, so they do not exceed it. According to a research, caffeine is more effective and works faster in gum formulation. The wide range of caffeinated products and their use depends on the fact that it is medically safe, it’s socially acceptable, readily available and affordable. Caffeine also contains variety of athletic benefits, caffeine works as a performance enhancing agent, it helps in building up stamina by increasing endurance of the athlete. (C J D and J D, 2000). The product can be sold in the convenient stores.

Product description and development:
The name of the product is Quick boost. The product is available in 3 flavours, original which has a taste of coffee, strawberry and peppermint. Original and strawberry flavours contain sugar and peppermint flavour is sugar free. This caffeinated chewing gum is a better way to consume caffeine due to it’s low levels of caffeine and less sugar levels than any energy drink. In addition, the product label allows an individual to track the amount of stimulant consumed which makes it safe. This is a quick and portable way for people looking for stimulant. Which makes them achieve their target quickly in a better way and at any part of the day. The product contains 20mg of caffeine in each piece which is less than a half cup of coffee, maximum 2-3 piece of Quick boost can be consumed per day as individual’s need. 2-3 pieces of chewing gum remains under the recommended dose of caffeine per day. According to Food and drug administration (FDA) caffeine comes under the category of a drug, this belongs to the group of medicines which is known as central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. 400 mg of is the maximum recommended caffeine dose per day. (Nichols and Deborah Weatherspoon, 2017). The sources where the caffeine is obtained for this product are organic. Coffee beans, tea leaves and buds will be used to obtain caffeine. (Nichols and Deborah Weatherspoon, 2017). Each pack of Quick boost contains 8 pieces, which is equivalent to almost 5 cups of coffee, 5 energy drinks and almost 1.5 energy shot. A whole pack of 8 pieces cost 3.50£ which costs less than a cup of coffee. This chewing gum is safe, handy and is also a substitute to many carbonated soft drinks or energy drinks, this eliminates the amount of sugar consumed in these drinks, thus also lowering the chances of diabetes and obesity. According to a study conducted on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine using a caffeinated chewing gum and a caffeinated beverage, the result shows that there is not much difference in the impact of caffeine absorption in the human body whether consumed by a drink or by chewing gum formulation. (Sadek et al., 2017). The aim of this product is to provide a stimulant to an individual enabling them to perform better daily tasks, alertness and providing them with better memory. The product also aims to improve moods and reduces the risk of depression. Caffeine is associated with subjective alertness, good memory and improved reaction time. According to an experiment conducted on a cohort of 60 volunteers, who consumed normal amounts of caffeinated drinks on daily basis. The result showed that the consumption of caffeine resulted in an improved performance in the daily tasks and positive impact of mood (Smith, Sutherland and Christopher, 2005). A study suggest that the consumption of caffeine reduces the risk of depression. Caffeine is also associated with positive reinforcement of daily tasks. Caffeine consumption is associated with positive effect of caffeine on risk of depression, the findings were based on the observation on the large cohort of women, in addition suicide risk was found lower among the group that had higher consumption of coffee. (Lucas et al., 2011) Caffeine assay is conducted by the saliva samples with the help of salivates. Emit caffeine assay which is a homogenous enzyme immunoassay is used to determine the caffeine levels in the body. Another method is High-performed liquid chromatography (HPLC) which can be used to determine the content of caffeine in the product. These assays can be used to make sure that the contents of the product and the impact of the dose of caffeine is in the favour for the individual using it and does not have any harmful impact on anyone. This assay can also be used for the improvisation of the product. (Naegele, 2016) Caffeine works as a central nervous system stimulant. It mobilizes the intracellular calcium, inhibiting the specific phosphodiesterase that only take place at high concentrations of caffeine. It increases the energy metabolism within the brain but decreases cerebral blood flow immediately. Caffeine activates noradrenaline neuron which effects the release of dopamine. The alerting effect of caffeine also effects the serotonin producing neurons. Methylxanthine also cause increase in dose response in locomotor activity of animals. Though the psychostimulant action of caffeine might be hard to notice but it’s effect on daily performance and coordination, memory and learning skills are associated with the methylxanthine action on the arousal, vigilance and fatigue. Caffeine has a great impact on individual’s anxiety and sleep which is corelated with the individual’s sensitivity to methylxanthine. (Nehlig, Daval and Debry, 1992). Human brain is affected by the consumption of caffeine, this functions with antagonistic action on adenosine A2A receptor which plays vital role in modulation of dopamine transmission. This antagonistic effect of caffeine on adenosine is also associated with nondopaminergic mechanism, which is the release of acetylcholine and serotonin (Lucas et al., 2011) According to a study conducted on the impact of caffeine on human memory which was conducted with the help of Morris water maze task shows that the caffeine holds positive impacts on memory and learning skills. (Angelucci et al., 2002). The product also aims to reduce weight gain and helps in the weight loss as caffeine is associated with minimalizing the appetite and suppressing the desire to eat, it also helps in stimulating thermogenesis which helps the body to increase the rate of digestion. (Nichols and Deborah Weatherspoon, 2017). The product also lowers the risk of kidney stone according to a study it shows that individuals consuming caffeine are less likely to be affected by nephrolithiasis (Ferraro et al., 2014) However, the product cannot be used by adolescent, children, breast-feeding or pregnant women due to the presence of caffeine which may not be suitable for these people. (Wikoff et al., 2017) American academy paediatrics discourages the consumptions of caffeine and other stimulants for children and adolescents. (Fda.gov, 2018)
Market awareness:
Caffeine is consumed by many people all around the world, in different sources of food. In United states (U.S) mare than 90% of the adult population consumes caffeine, around 200 mg of caffeine is consumed by an individual per day. Whereas, in UK 400 billion coffee cups are sold per annum. Therefore, it’s considered the most famous drink all around the world. According to statistics, the coffee consuming market in UK consumes 1.7 kg of coffee per annum, the least they spend would be £730 million per year. Which shows that the product aims to target a big market of consumers as the reason for coffee consumption is the stimulant that is caffeine. (White, 2016)
For funding purposes for this product, UK government funding programs or organisations like GSK can be approached, which supports new idea and provide funding if they approve the product. (Gsk.com, 2018) In addition to funding, promoting a business plays the vital role for the success of any business and can be heavy on the budget too. There are some cheap but effective marketing techniques which can be used to acquire customers. Advertising the product by email marketing, affiliate marketing programs or using earned media techniques can be helpful and affordable method for marketing. (Cambell, 2018)
Legal considerations:
To bring this product to the market, the product first needs to get registered with the local authority 28 days before selling. This registration is free of coast. It must be made sure that the local authority where the product will get registered have up-to-dated information about it. The authority should know all the changes that are needed to be brought about in the product. If a website is used for the product information, it needs to get registered as well. Once all the registration is done the product will then be inspected by an authorised officer from the local authority. It is legally important to have food and safety certificate, the certificate does not have any expiry date it can be refreshed by updated courses Food inspection is done by checking the premises where the product is being produced, how the work is being done, the food safety management system in the premises and the type of food being produced in the premises. Food inspector also considers the food hygiene and standards, the sampling of the product, any complaint regarding it and provides useful feedback and advises on the visit. It is important that the product that is being introduced in the market is safe, it should not be unfit or bring any harm to an individual’s health. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system have principles which are followed by food safety management procedure. The purpose of HACCP is to ensure that the food is handled safely and is safe to eat. Food might be withdrawn if it is harmful to health or unsafe for people this is handled by the FSA or local council. Another fact to be kept in mind is food traceability, this rule helps in tacking the amount of food product supplied to the market so that in case of any food safety issue that food product can be accurately withdraw from the whole market. This helps in minimalizing the risk. It is necessary for the suppliers to keep track of food ingredients used in it, the businesses where the food is being supplied to, this record should contain the name and addresses of the suppliers, quantity of products supplied, dates for the delivery of products and transactions. It is important to meet all the above legal requirements when starting a new business. (Food Standards Agency, 2018)
In addition, EU food information regulation (regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011) requires that a specific labelling is needed to be done for the high caffeine drinks and food where caffeine is being added as a stimulant. This labelling is useful for consumers who are caffeine sensitive, pregnant women or adolescent to identify their needs and the amount being added to it. (Food Standards Agency, 2018)
References:
Angelucci, M. et al. (2002). ‘Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze’, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 35(10), pp.1201-1208. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=s0100-879×2002001000013&script=sci_arttext (Accessed 9 Apr. 2018).

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C J D, S. and J D, G. (2000). ‘Caffeine use in sports: A pharmacological review’, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 40(1). Available at: https://search.proquest.com/openview/c37c49d223ea45e88a327318ec014388/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=4718 (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Cambell, C. (2018). 20 Highly Effective Ways to Promote a Product. Shopify’s Ecommerce Blog – Ecommerce News, Online Store Tips ; More. Available at: https://www.shopify.com/blog/69319365-20-highly-effective-ways-to-promote-a-product (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Dews, P. et al. (1984). ‘Report of Fourth International Caffeine Workshop, Athens, 1982’, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 22(2), pp.163-169. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-69823-1_4 (Accessed 6 Feb. 2018).

Fda.gov. (2018). Caffeine and Kids: FDA Takes a Closer Look. online Available at: https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm350570.htm (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Ferraro, P. et al. (2014). ‘Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones’, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(6), pp.1596-1603. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411295 (Accessed 16 Feb. 2018).

Food Standards Agency. (2018). Food additives. Available at: https://www.food.gov.uk/science/additives/energydrinks Accessed 3 May 2018.

Food Standards Agency. (2018). Homepage. Available at: https://www.food.gov.uk/ (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Gsk.com. (2018). Funding requests | GSK. Available at: https://www.gsk.com/en-gb/contact-us/funding-requests/ (Accessed 5 May 2018)
Lucas, M. et al. (2011). ‘Coffee, Caffeine, and Risk of Depression Among Women’, Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(17), p.1571. Available at: http://file:///C:/Users/the_a/Downloads/ioi15048_1571_1578.pdf (Accessed 8 Mar. 2018).

Naegele, E. (2016). ‘Determination of Caffeine in Coffee Products According to DIN 20481’. Available at: https://www.agilent.com/cs/library/applications/5991-2851EN.pdf (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Nehlig, A. et al. (1992). ‘Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects’, Brain Research Reviews, 17(2), pp.139-170. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016501739290012B (Accessed 11 Mar. 2018).

Schulze, M. et al. (2004) ‘Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women’, ACC Current Journal Review, 13(11), pp.34-35. Available at: http://Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Weight Gain, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-Aged Women (Accessed 11 Feb. 2018).

Sadek, P. et al. (2017). ‘A Randomized, Two-Way Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine Delivered Using Caffeinated Chewing Gum Versus a Marketed Caffeinated Beverage in Healthy Adult Volunteers’, Journal of Caffeine Research, 7(4), pp.125-132. Available at: https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jcr.2017.0025 (Accessed 8 Mar. 2018).

Smith, A. et al. (2005). ‘Effects of repeated doses of caffeine on mood and performance of alert and fatigued volunteers’, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19(6), pp.620-626. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0269881105056534 (Accessed 11 Apr. 2018).

Nichols, H. and Deborah Weatherspoon, C. (2017). ‘Caffeine: Benefits, risks, and effects’, Medical News Today. Available at: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/285194.php (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Todaysdietitian.com. (2018). The Truth About Energy Drinks. Available at: http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/100713p62.shtml Accessed 3 May 2018.

White, V. (2016). Coffee consumption in the UK. New Food Magazine. Available at: https://www.newfoodmagazine.com/news/22349/coffee-consumption-in-the-uk/ (Accessed 3 May 2018).

Wikoff, D. et al. (2017). ‘Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children’, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 109, pp.585-648. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28438661 (Accessed 2 Apr. 2018).

Reflection on skills portfolio:
Career plans:
I started my degree in February,2016 and I am heading towards the end of my second year. My degree is ending on 2019 which is not so far. There are several careers for BSc (Hons) biomedical science students like they can work as a biomedical scientist, healthcare scientist in fields like Haematology and Immunology, they can work as a toxicologist, Physician associate, microbiologist or medical research scientist. The units I have studied up till now from my first year till the second year, has helped me a lot to discover what I like and what I really want to pursue as my career in. After studying my second year I am now clear that I have interest in the following field and I want to pursue my career in of the following disciplines: Immunology, Haematology, Medical Microbiology, Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology. I have a plan to enhance my skills on my CV and look some apprenticeships in hospitals and laboratories. It is going to be my important goal in the third year to enhance my skills, I will do that with the help of some socialising sites recommended by my tutors, using references and trying to approach places by visiting them and enquiring them. This will hopefully help me to get a nice job in the future, in one of the fields that I want to pursue my career in, that is as a biomedical scientist, physician associate, toxicologist or as a health care scientist in immunology or haematology. I have an interest in becoming a higher education lecturer too in a good university. I have other plans too in case if I am not able to get a job immediately after my graduation. In that case I would like to proceed with my studies and continue with my master’s degree.
Reflection on skills:
Second year of my course has helped me a lot to enhance my skills. This year I had a chance to explore some lab techniques and to improve my skills more in handling basic laboratory equipment, data collection, observation, organisation, pipetting, dilution, data handling. I have also developed creative thinking and critical thinking. There were many times when I had a chance to explore my thinking during laboratory practical. I have learned to be organised and time management in all the labs. I am have successfully developed good knowledge of safety during lab processes while handling samples and chemicals. I have developed my learning and applied them on my work during laboratory work, I have studied many physiological systems in the human body and have seen anatomical structures in the body of rodent which are almost like human during dissection. I feel more confident in using laboratory equipment like spectrophotometer, centrifuge machine, incubator, shaker and compound microscope. Generating lab reports have made me more confident and have enhanced my observing skills. I have conducted many test procedures in the laboratory in different disciplines and have interpreted results too. I feel more confident in generating a lab report now. I have also given presentation this year which has improved my self-confidence, team working skills, communicating skills and time management skills. In presentation I had to work in a pair, on the same subject. I have made my presentation and have presented it in front of a group of people. I have worked on a product related to business and have proposed my idea to my supervisor. This encouraged me to be free to think and to develop a new idea, working on it and conducting research on it. Working on my product gave me understanding of how to evaluate information, using right sources, presenting all the findings in a proper way and communicating them, which is expected in a good science graduate. It has enhanced my information literacy, my creative thinking and problem-solving skills. Working on my business proposal gave me idea about what ethical issues can rise when working on a product or services, which has widened my thinking. I have also learned about the legal consideration in the UK related to developing a drug. Working on business proposal gave me a chance to develop market awareness and statistics knowledge related to my product. I have also had meetings with my supervisor where I had a question- answer sessions and I had to answer him about my product, this helped to improve my confidence and enhanced my researching skills. There are a lot of things to learn in the coming year which I am looking forward to, to stand out from the crowd of applicant, at the time applying for my desired job. I am trying to work on like gaining some experience in work related to my degree. I am planning to find work or apprenticeship in a local pharmacy, in the laboratories as an assistant or in local hospitals. This will give me a nice opportunity to develop new skill and to learn more related to my field. I would also go for career department in university to enhance my CV and cover letter. They can also help me by conducting some mock interviews, this will give me some tips for a job interview. I would also like to spread my links and try to use them in a purposeful way to find an apprenticeship or work. I will try to use the services provided by career department as they can also help to find out some work experience related to my degree. However, there are some areas that I would like to work on for improvement, that is numerical data handling, and IT. I am focusing more on these areas as I’m heading towards the last year of my degree. I want to do some short online courses and more practice on numerical data handling as these skills are important for a biomedical science graduate.

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