Ans 1)

The “cloud” is being used as a metaphor for the Internet; it means a virtual space and capacity which is sharing information by using internet connectivity through satellite over the globe. And hence, cloud symbols are now often used to portray the Internet on diagrams.
Cloud computing, refers to sharing resources, software, and information via a network, i.e. through internet connectivity. The information is stored on physical servers which are maintained and controlled by a cloud computing provider, such as Google in reference to Google Drive. As a user, one can access stored information on the cloud via the Internet.
By using cloud storage, one doesn’t need to store information on any hard disk. Instead, anyone can access the cloud data from any location and can download it to any device available for it, including laptop, tablets and smartphones. Also file editing in Microsoft word and excel files can be done in parallel
There are different types of cloud computing services available to suit different needs. While some cater to individual users who want photos, documents, and videos, others to store and are destined for companies that need extensive platforms to develop IT applications and store huge organisation data which can be accessible worldwide any time anywhere if anybody needs that data to access for reference and work.
Similarly for hospitality industry also its import and safe also to save all data and reports everything on cloud so that hassle of getting delayed and miss placed is not there .also easily accessible all around the world for reference and quick use of the same to get patient checked and all this system leads to time saving and comfort of patient and hospital management too
Concept and application:

Benefits of cloud computing
Cloud computing is a big shift from the traditional way businesses think about IT resources.

1. Cost
It basically eliminates the extra cost of buying hardware’s, software and setting up cost also the place required and safety issues like of theft.

2. Speed
With just a few clicks all data can be uploaded and can be retrieve so that it saves time and authenticity of data .hence making overall system more flexible.

3. Global scale
The benefits of cloud computing services include the ability to scale elastically i.e. power, storage, bandwidth—right when it’s needed and from the right geographic location.

4. Productivity
Cloud computing removes the need of racking and stacking so IT teams can spend time on achieving more important business goals.

5. Performance
The biggest cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure datacentres, which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and efficient computing hardware. .

6. Reliability
Cloud computing makes data backup, disaster recovery and business continuity easier and less expensive, because data can be mirrored at multiple redundant sites on the cloud provider’s network.

1. Worldwide Access. Cloud computing increases mobility, as you can access your documents from any device in any part of the world. For businesses, this means that employees can work from home or on business trips, without having to carry around documents. This increases productivity and allows faster exchange of information. Employees can also work on the same document without having to be in the same place.
2. More Storage. In Earlier times memory was limited and if space is not left then USB was needed. Cloud computing thus supplement with extra storage,
3. Easy Set-Up. Immediate starting of resources, software and information which are saved on cloud .hence can set up a cloud computing service in a matter of minutes.
4. Automatic Updates. This helps in saving lot of time in updating and downloading the applications and data saved on cloud, which is available hands on to use.
5. Reduced Cost. Cloud computing is often inexpensive but in long run n data security pointwise it is safe and with minimal cost. There are numerous cloud computing applications available for free, such as Dropbox, and increasing storage size and memory is affordable.

Major challenges face can be:
1. Security. On cloud, basically data is being stored at third party. Everyone from all over the world is using the same server and may cause security. Confidentiality of data may get harm due to virus attack and malware. For example, some servers like Google Cloud Connect come with customizable spam filtering, email encryption, and SSL enforcement for secure HTTPS access, among other security measures.

2. Privacy. Cloud computing comes with the risk that unauthorized users might access your information. For this cloud computing services offer password protection and operate on secure servers with data encryption technology.

3. Loss of Control. Cloud computing entities control the users. This includes not only how much you have to pay to use the service, but also what information you can store, where you can access it from, and many other factors. You depend on the provider for updates and backups. If for some reason, their server ceases to operate, you run the risk of losing all your information.

4. Internet Reliance. If the area doesn’t have Internet access, then wont be able to open any of the documents stored in the cloud.

Potential Benefits of Cloud Migration and Conclusion:
Many problems can be resolved on moving to cloud.
Your application is experiencing increased traffic and it’s becoming difficult to scale resources on the fly to meet the increasing demand.
To reduce operational costs, and parallely increasing the effectiveness of IT processes.
For fast application implementation and deployment.
Your clients want to expand their business geographically, but you suspect that setting up a multi-region infrastructure – with all the associated maintenance, time, human, and error control effort – is going to be a challenge.
It’s becoming more difficult and expensive to keep up with your growing storage needs.
Cloud computing environments allow remotely located employees to access applications and work via the Internet.
to establish a disaster recovery system but setting it up for an entire data center could double the cost. It would also require a complex disaster recovery plan. Cloud disaster recovery systems can be implemented much more quickly and give you much better control over your resources.
Tracking and upgrading underlying server software is a time consuming, yet essential process that requires periodic and sometimes immediate upgrades. In some cases, a cloud provider will take care of this automatically. Some cloud computing models similarly handle many administration tasks such as database backup, software upgrades, and periodic maintenance.
Capex to Opex: Cloud computing shifts IT expenditure to a pay-as-you-go model, which is an attractive benefit, especially for startups

Ans 2)

Supply chain management systems are integrated partnerships between all linkups in the flow of goods and services to the customer.
Basically it is implemented for the purpose of improving quality, reducing costs and achieving competitive advantage .In today’s world lean manufacturing and specialization compels companies to rely on one another for valuable productive activities mutually .
All supply chain activities like planning, sourcing, producing, delivering and providing returns, are managed jointly within an integrated supply chain to ensure the maximum use of shared and available resources.

Different components in supply chain management are:

A well-planned supply chain management system can be broken into three components:
1) Strategic component: The strategic component includes decisions related to the number, size and location of warehouses and the selection of supply chain partners. Product management and cooperative marketing strategies are also considered at this level. Technological infrastructure design and implementation is a large part of the strategic component and must be collaboratively carried out by all member companies
2) Tactical component: it basically encompasses the execution of strategic initiatives and start-ups. Partnership details are decoded at this level. Decisions related to inventory quality, quantity and location is taken, and benchmarks are to be created to analyse supply chain effectiveness and economic viability.
3) Operational component: Operational activities are activities which confirms and ensure that supply chain activities run smoothly and efficiently. Shipping and receiving activities, as well as purchase orders and demand forecasting, are a part of the operational component.

Unilever: Unilever is the third largest consumer goods company which have great chain of food beverages, personal hygiene care products. As the unilever began its fiver year growth strategy in year 2000 which target for complete restructuring of supply management. They focused on organization, global procurement processes, supply chain executives, supplier involvement, and technology. As a result, they achieved $14.24 billion in savings in 2003 from its initiatives, and Unilever became a leader in the consumer packaged industry for technology adoption.
Some of the positive points of IT enabled services (information system) are:?
IT is comparatively less capital intensive
It is environmental friendly and clean
It is not location specific and can be undertaken from anywhere.?
It does not require expensive infrastructure facilities
Various IT solutions
Electronic mail (e-mail),
Electronic data interchange (EDI) ,
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Results of IT solution it is observed that the Indian retail industry is booming and internet is being utilized in automobile industry in a big way. Internet trying to interlink suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers to have better control on inventory at various levels of supply chain including better utilization of manpower and also keeping track of inventory.
But it is fact that internet has influenced the whole business strategy whether it is policy or it is physical implementation. Some of the areas where’s greater effect felt