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Table of contents
ABSTRACT 2
1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 3
INTRODUCTION 3
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 3
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 3
AIM OF THE RESEARCH 4
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CAUSES OF LACK OF DISCIPLINE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS? 4
WHAT ARE SOME SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF DISRUPTIVE, AGGRESSIVE AND VIOLENT STUDENTS? 5
USEFULNESS OF INTERNET ON LITERATURE REVIEW 5
1.2 ACTION RESEARCH 6
ACTION RESEARCH PROBLEM. 6
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6
WHAT IS WORKING WELL WITH REGARD TO THE SOLUTIONS YOU ARE IMPLEMENTING? 6
WHAT IS NOT WORKING WELL AND WHAT DO YOU PLAN TO DO ABOUT IT? 6
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION 7
1.3 SELF-ASSESSMENT 8
BIBLIOGRAPHY 9

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Abstract

More students in South Africa are living in urban communities and are more likely to experience trauma due to violence, death, neglect, poverty, and abuse. Based on literature review children may respond to these traumatic experiences in the form of disruptive behaviours in the classroom. Students who suffer from trauma or behaviours disorders are likely to exhibit severe behaviours such as violence, disruption, self-harm, and defiance within the classroom (Anne Gregory, Russell J. Skiba, and Pedro A. Noguera, 2010)
Classroom discipline and violence continues to be a major issue in South African schools. Teachers believe that such situations cause stress amongst all school participants and this becomes a problem for teaching and learning to be effective and results in poor academic performance.

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1.1 Literature Review
Introduction
It is important to consider that educators need assistance in schools with regard to management of discipline. Section 10 (1) of the South African Schools Act (National Education Policy Act No.84, 1996) banned the use of corporal punishment in all South African Schools. This was met with mixed reaction because some educators and parents were very positive about it and felt that the act merely reflected the Constitution, which also states that, I quote “No person shall be subjected to torture of any kind, nor shall any person be treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading way” (Constitution of the republic of South Africa, 1996). Other people were very concerned as they felt that the government is not capable of bringing alternatives to corporal punishment.
Significance of the study
Educators in secondary schools are currently experiencing high levels of stress due to the work demands they have to fulfil and the lack of discipline in the classroom, as lack of learner discipline hamper the teaching and learning process (Rossow, 2003:43).

The researcher’s experience is that many educators in South African schools still believe in the effectiveness of corporal punishment even though it has been abolished. On the other hand, many parents still demand that educators cane their children regardless of what the South African Schools Act states. The Department of Education, as well as some literature, provide educators with certain guidelines they may employ as alternative approaches to corporal punishment (Van Wyk, 2001).
The purpose of this research is to assess the management of discipline by educators in selected secondary schools. There are three major objectives in this study. Firstly, the study sought to examine the major causes of lack of discipline in secondary schools. Secondly, the study sought to determine the extent to which educators are affected by lack of discipline in the classrooms. Thirdly, possible strategies and alternatives to be used by educators.
Statement of the research problem
Educators in secondary schools are exposed to a wide variety of challenges within the school situation and these have a bearing on the quality of teaching and learning. One of these challenges is the implementation of effective methods of discipline in the classroom, without the use of corporal punishment. Another challenge can be attributed to escalating violence and vandalism that exist within the school’s premises and how this related to discipline. On the other hand, parents exert more pressure on educators demanding that corporal punishment should be used in order to enforce discipline in their children. The problem emanating from the above is whether educators are able to manage discipline in schools.
Aim of the Research
The aim of the study is to contribute to and amplify the existing body of knowledge as regards the causes of lack of discipline in schools and the management of discipline by educators. In order to accomplish this aim, the following objectives should be realised by the study:
• to determine the extent to which educators are affected by a lack of discipline in the classrooms; and
• to investigate possible alternative strategies for educators to promote and manage effective classroom discipline.
What are the major causes of lack of discipline in secondary schools?
There are various explanations for the dramatic increase in disruptive behavior in the classroom. The literature suggests that misbehavior, aggression and violence are caused by factors in the home, in society and in school. Generally speaking, classroom misbehavior is intentional, not inadvertent, students know they should not do it. Misbehaving students exhibit the following broad types of misbehavior:
• Aggression: physical and verbal attacks on the teacher or other students.
• Immorality: acts such as cheating, lying and stealing.
• Class disruptions: talking loudly, calling out, walking around the classroom, not doing assigned tasks, daydreaming etc.

There is a need for discipline in schools in order to ensure a conducive learning environment. However, discipline must be effective enough to facilitate the teaching and learning process. There is no universally agreed definition of effective discipline. It is, however, generally seen as having two distinct, but related purposes. Firstly, it is a means to an end, a necessary condition for learning and secondly discipline can also be an end in itself, an outcome of schooling (Rossouw, 2003). A negative school climate will affect learner behaviour in much the same way as the climate in the classroom. The school’s management should strive to establish a school environment in which discipline is maintained.

What are some solutions to the problem of disruptive, aggressive and violent students?
The first thing to do as an educator is to identify the behavior. Trying to find or examine how you have been dealing with the behaviour and evaluate what has been contributing to conflict and whether anything has de-escalated these situations in the past. Drop what is not working and identify any methods which are working. A good rule of thumb is if you are left feeling angry and out of control, your method is ineffective. (Schlein, 2013)
Usefulness of internet on literature review
Internet is useful because it takes you to a variety of locations. Your search can also lead you to research articles and opinion papers that individual researchers have made available on the Web and can be able to download or print documents. Internet is useful because you can surf the net at any time of day because libraries closes at a certain time but the internet sources are always available. You are also able to keep track of sources, date and that you accessed on the web using referencing tools. Recently published literature review gives valuable research studies and cutting-edge ideas related to your research topic. It can be beneficial because Eric database has more information on educational content and has been reviewed and quality assured.

There are also challenges regarding internet searches for research because you have to go through a lot of articles before finding the relevant once with high quality information and a lot of information has not been reviewed for quality and accuracy.
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1.2 Action Research
Action research problem.
How can learners disruptive behaviour in the classroom be addressed?
Research Questions
• What are the major causes of lack of discipline in secondary schools?
• To what extent are educators affected by lack of discipline in the classroom?
• What are possible alternative strategies for educators to promote and manage effective classroom discipline?

What is working well with regard to the solutions you are implementing?
Outlining proactive behavior modification strategies, reinforcement plans, and teaching new functional behavior which will replace the student’s inappropriate ways of dealing with emotion. It can be helpful to hold a meeting with the student and his or her parents. Let the student know what is and is not acceptable and how he or she can be helped to learn appropriate behavior. Using a cue when the educator sense the student’s behavior is escalating can be helpful in teaching the student to be aware of his or her own behavior and to remind the student to use the appropriate behaviours which they have been taught. Another thing that worked is sharing life experiences and include culturally relevant practices when possible to support relationship building.

What is not working well and what do you plan to do about it?
Raising the voice – once the voice is raised, know that you’ve lost. Meaning that, students will either be feeling scared, angry or indifferent to you an educator and the control would be diminished because whatever is fun and interesting about my subject is taken away. This will be addressed by trying to use more eye contact on individual learners because if the learner realises that you are looking at them when they misbehave, they correct their behaviour instantly.

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Findings and Conclusion
Findings from the literature review generally indicate that the management of discipline in secondary schools requires cooperation of parents, educators and learners. This means that there is a need for proper consultation, representation and participation in all activities that affect the sound management of schools.

Since it is indicated from the findings that there are deteriorating levels of discipline in secondary schools it must be emphasizes that management of discipline should be implemented accordingly. The Department of Education as part of partnership in education, has a responsibility to implement training workshops. Parents, teachers and learners have a responsibility of working together towards building disciplined school environments so as to help the educators to teach effectively and to enhance quality education in secondary schools.
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1.3 Self-Assessment
Unsatisfactory 30-40%
Satisfactory 50-55%
Relatively good 65% ?
Good 70%
Very good 80-90%
Followed instructions and used the required number of articles to analyze the literature review, indicated my own finding and draw conclusions based on the sources and research question,
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Bibliography
Anne Gregory, Russell J. Skiba, and Pedro A. Noguera. (2010, February 12). Retrieved from shankerinstitute.org: http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/Gregory-et-al.-The-Achievement-Gap-and-the-Discipline-Gap-Two-Sides-of-the-Same-Coin.pdf
Constitution of the republic of South Africa. (1996). Constitution Act No. 108 of 1996, cf, section 12(1).
National Education Policy Act No.84. (1996, April 22). National Education Policy. Retrieved from Google: https://www.elrc.org.za/sites/default/files/documents/NEPA.pdf
Rossouw, J. (2003). Learner discipline in South African public. Koers 68(4) 2003:413-435, 405.
Rossow. (2003:43).
Schlein, C. T.-B. (2013). Curriculum & Teaching Dialogue, 15(1), 133-146. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.dominican.edu
Van Wyk, N. (2001). Perceptions and practices of discipline in urban black schools in south africa. South African Journal of Education, 196-197.