4000302260centerCS1 Major Assignment
3300095000CS1 Major Assignment
420003175000880009408795John TagiARCH5311 Critical studies 1 2018
450000John TagiARCH5311 Critical studies 1 2018
29146501400175StonehengeBiography of a Building00StonehengeBiography of a Building
Today there are thousands of myths and traditions behind the historical Stonehenge where many scholars and archaeologies have attributed towards this great megalith structure. It been discovered many years ago and probably the most popular visited monument in the world by archaeologies and researchers. I will be discussing throughout this writing specific aspects of Stonehenge and the different areas of context which may have an impact to the structure itself. This also examine the critical and quality of the stones in terms of how it function, construction, aesthetic and its process during the time of the making. In these four areas I have investigated that every element has an extraordinary connection, not only with the context but also the people who are involved.
Stonehenge is a great mystery piece of architecture. It’s a Neolithic monumental of stone megalith located in Wiltshire, England which is about 18.5 miles (30km) south of the Avebury site and around 8 miles (13km) northwest of Salisbury. Stonehenge was first a work of Earthwork, built around 3000 BC. It was use as a burial ground by the public for over many years which cremate remains until the excavation took place. About the same time stones were applied into the circle also the lintels of the existing stones. This was the additional stones which created the structure as part of the third phase. There are two type pf stones a Stonehenge. The larger and outer stones are called Sacren stones. They are a type of sandstone which came from Southern England. There were even larger stones, the biggest on site called the Heel Stone that were approximaly 35 tons plus. The smaller ones are the bluestones and came from Preseli Hills in Pembrokeshire in Wales and exclusively unknown how these were transported on site. There have many research and investigation on about why Stonehenge was built but the common and known reasons was;
A burial site for important people
A plce of healing
A temple to the sun
A place for ceremonies.
However, over the decays, things changed and most information about the Stonehenge has remain as a mystery till today.
left4445000Physical ; Cultural Context: Aesthetic
The landscape surrounding Stonehenge contains the largest and richest prehistoric ceremonial centre known in Britain. Also was subjected under great deal of archaeological analysing and studying over decades which has significantly enhanced understanding of the monuments and its connections. After around 3000 B.C. the Stonehenge formal focus extended quickly. The landscape seems to have been genuinely open at this point, and broad geophysical overviews to uncover the absence of changeless settlement in the zone. From the Stonehenge context, four complexes are included and all have features in common. All consist of groups of monuments that in the main served non-utilitarian purposes such as a temple and other processional ways. All of them reflect an element or ritual for its specialised function. Carnac-Locmariaquer, the Boyne, Kilmartin and Orkney; all played in the understanding of past human endeavour and creativity and their role within recent times as attractions for visitors. But definitely can’t not lose sight of the equally important role that the apparently more mundane monument play. Overall the scheme of preservation such as monuments cannot be neglected, they are wide ranging documentation of archaeology.
Economic & Time Context: Construction
Over the past century many critics analysed the Stonehenge to be a pile of sacred stone in a circle due to the fact that the past down tale held a special meaning exclusively to the builders. There are 3 phases due to the construction of the Stonehenge.
Phase 1: Earthwork monument
The first phase was more about the arrangement of the groundwork. It all stared around 3000 to 2900 BC when the stones weren’t involved at this point of time. At first the ditch was just simply a circulation piled stones along each other as found. It created two circles and earth banks which was called Aubery Holes; symbolized the 56 holes that was dug, named after John Aubery.
Phase 2: Timber Monument
About 2500 to 2700 BC a large number of posts purposely to be a guidance and path flowing through the ceremonial centre. Some scholars believe it was an astronomical measurement of the extraordinary moon rise and set. Even though the majority of the pole holes were randomly placed and some were clusters or even patterns just to display. It is possible to discern several elements to the array of 55 post holes at the entrance at least six transverse rows and also at least nine radial rows and a diagonal row of slightly larger posts. There were smaller ones, 20cm in diameter and only 10cm deep while the largest was 63 cm in diameter and 66cm deep. To this evidence of timber structures within the enclosure must be added consideration of the palisade discovered during the construction. Out of all phases of Stonehenge, was discovered that this phase was the most difficult in the structural sequence in regards to see cohesion. At this very time the late Neothlic was the dominant ceramic and henge monument were the best known example of any kind of communally monument.
Phase 3: Stone Monument
At this stage of the monument construction part was and still is the most investigated area in terms of evaluating every moment and scene that took place. The arrival of the stones took place from 2550 to about 1600 BC. Bluestones were the first stones located on site at the centre of the ditch and concentrated more on the north eastern side.
During the next 100 years, the former bluestone arrangement was dismantled and huge sarsen stones were erected, forming a circle. They were about 4 metres in height, with a continuous lintel of stone blocks (about 1-metre-thick) places on top. The lintels were shaped with curved surfaces, to form a circle. The top of this circle was almost horizontal despite the fact that the monument was situated on a slightly sloping ground. The stones were joined together using techniques such as mortice-and-Tenon and tongue-and-groove joints. It is important to note that the centre of this sarsen stone circle is different from that of the central point of Phase 1 and 2. In fact, it became a few degrees further east, and the new axis was the central line of the Avenue (a pair of parallel earthen banks with a ditch on the outer side of each, running from the River Avon to the North Eastern entrance). It was thought that the Avenue was the route, which the original bluestones were brought from the river to the site. The width of the Avenue gradually decreases as it approaches the monument.
Political ; Social: Function
Due to site visits from all over the globe and researchers presenting on site, in 2013 architect Denton Corker Marshall claim to design a Visitor Centre for Stonehenge. The Stonehenge Environmental Improvements Project settled out to provide the facilities of many visitors including as much resources and also to restore the setting and dignity of this world famous monument. This centre has become an iconic learning centre which links and reaches to the stones where they are able to explore right across the landscape on site.
Overall we have review specific areas of the conext and how this has its very own stron relationship with history but also with people who have been involved. Nowadays, the twentieth-century excavations at Stonehenge has rarely been approached, but in large part is still within reach. Key sources will be interviews with living archaeologists who have excavated at Stonehenge in any capacity; private and public photographic and cine-film collections; television and radio archives; testimonies from friends and colleagues who have worked with previous excavators of the site, custodians and site staff, and perhaps visitors and local people who remember the work taking place. This objective requires the involvement of researchers experienced in collecting social history material and with access to means for copying and storing a variety of source types. Ideally, all source material will be transferred to digital media for distribution.
Garfitt, J E, 1979, Moving the stones to Stonehenge. Antiquity, 53, 190–4