2018
M.Prakashini CL/BSCSD/16/15
Professional & Ethical Issues in IT
Virtual Reality

Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc519635801 h 3A.Ethical, Legal, Professional and the Social issues PAGEREF _Toc519635802 h 4B.Different perspectives of the issues and relevant ethical principles, theories, regulations and professional code of conducts PAGEREF _Toc519635803 h 4Introduction about Virtual Reality PAGEREF _Toc519635804 h 4Ethical Issues of Virtual Reality PAGEREF _Toc519635805 h 5B)1-Ethical Principles PAGEREF _Toc519635806 h 6Legal Issues of Virtual Reality PAGEREF _Toc519635807 h 7B)2-Law and regulation PAGEREF _Toc519635808 h 8Professional Issues of Virtual Reality PAGEREF _Toc519635809 h 9B)3-Professional code of conducts PAGEREF _Toc519635810 h 9Social issues of Virtual Reality PAGEREF _Toc519635811 h 10B)4-Ethical Theory PAGEREF _Toc519635812 h 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc519635813 h 12
AcknowledgementI wish to express my gratitude to my Ethics lecture to develop and do my Assignment as well as presentation in a proper way and she gave many different ideas and sorted out my doubts with the clear explanation. I am really thankful to her and she gave me a support to do my assignments successfully.

Next I would like to thank my ICBT friend who had sorted out my doubts and helped me to do the questions properly.

Ethical, Legal, Professional and the Social issuesDifferent perspectives of the issues and relevant ethical principles, theories, regulations and professional code of conductsIntroduction about Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality is a different world which is created with 3D effects and immersive latest and trending technology. .This is created with the use of real world environments situations and it will convince the human brain, it’s used with oculus rift, lower tech Google cardboard, and using headset, handset, gloves and some needed equipments. In that display screen images, sounds and other sensations are included. There are some types or key elements of virtual reality
Virtual world –This is a part which is to create or develop an object and display in a screen to interact with others. Immersion- This will present in a non physical world which exactly not a real, it act on human brains as well there are two types in immersion, Mental immersion Not believing which that is in VR, Physical immersion- Exhibited and physically engaged environment. Sensory Feedback- This is created on human sensory organs which will simulated with the visions feedback on according to the sensations. Interactivity- Engage the users in a natural with the virtual world, and responds to their actions, it will using the points and react according to the human brain.

(A,B Answers) Ethical Issues of Virtual RealityEthical dilemmas which will be occur in a large area, According to the latest and the trending technology the Virtual Reality is also having ethical dilemmas, most of the users or people are spending time to navigate with the artificial world by using the VR. The following are the researched ethical issues of Virtual Reality.

Stakeholders – Employees, Cooperation organization, Communities.

Manipulation- Virtual reality is an immersive technological device, and it controls with the developed objects and it display on the screen of VR. Mostly it is trickery and means control the behavior and change the users on time to time manner. Means focuses on some attitude like phone ringing, conversation, babies crying, noisy sounds of neighbors, traffic jam sound effects all the rest of the things will manipulate a person in different way. Sensory vulnerabilities –This VR is produced with the mixture of software and hardware, it means headset covering with the eyes. So this is automatically images are arise, videos are conjure in the display at that time the users play with VR and having it to access the data and it can cause the accidents, the misfortune activities done by the users. So it can be feels for the users as a realistic of the situation. Inappropriate of roaming- In the sense of way the technological device is having an existing point to move one to another place with earth’s comfort zone. This may happens an accident where ever the people used this VR. Most of the time VR is used to play the games with the 3D effects, while concerning it can used in water, highly build apartments, homes so unexpectedly accidents may occur(cause to death). Desensitization- This is any users of the virtual environment can be act by the behaviors, means while of after playing of the VR games they able to get some issues or influenced by embody so it can be happen as violence and show the empathy. The characters or the roles of users like shooters who are plays they involves as in a highest level of immersion, that time easily violence can be in high and engage the users in the killing scenarios. For Example the imagination of a person involving in any influences or conflicts and damaging more than in the VR videos, but some of the people are very danger in way they only not observing they will follow those violence in their behavior.

B)1-Ethical PrinciplesBenefices and the Nonmaleficence (unharm)
This will be improves the situation, this happen to the professional action to get safeguard from the others or that who they communicate. Issues are occurring by the workers process. Therefore that the judgment is done by them in action manner it can be change to influence like personally, socially, mentally , physically and also in a political wise. Because the VR platform is produced with the real world’s situation, so it affect the users personally.
Integrity and competence
According to this ethical principle, in virtual reality environment the process workers always concern on their device promotions. But they will be keeping and safeguard the personal details they do not cheat any of the users. They are responsible to protect the users details and able to correct the mistrust effects done by any other party or techniques. But however the VR group will promote wholeness.

Professional responsibilities
Virtual reality is a different world, the creators of VR groups are always aware on the VR devices and they are responsible to specific users. So before using the game application in VR they clarify the terms and conditions, because they are very clear in their rules. It is developed socially, psychologically and technical wise. 3D effects which is related on real world lives and they responsible for users.
Social responsibilities
The virtual environment process workers are aware on social like communities, individuals, and the families, they try to avoid those related harms. The developers of VR always learn and get the real world’s situation and they consider most of the latest trending and technologies and avoid the conflicts. Social wise it can effect in many ways therefore that thy search on real acts
Relationships
The developers before they develop the VR platform they understand the relation bonds of the people and devices how they use, and how it helps to keep a bond with another person. By playing the games the users are strengthening their relationships they try to maintain the better and good communities in a way.

(A,B ) Legal Issues of Virtual RealityStakeholders – Government, Ministry of transport and communication, public authorities
Defamation- This if a statement is given about a person to third person means if anyone harms the other person’s reputation which thrown around the terms and conditions. Legally it can be an issue, because the services and terms are misused interchangeably and also it can be attack of virtual reality. Intellectual property – Accordingly to VR application creation the other third party developers are incorporate the logos, trademarks, sound effects, video of VR platform in real world copyrights ensure. Same trademarks copied and used in the VR environment so the specific company name get damaged Virtual crime – This can cause for some particular emotions with the effects of immersion. As in a way VR experience is always seems too real. Such crimes happen in VR those are can be happen as a cyber assault, stealing of VR properly illegally and betting with the money identifying theft, strobe lighting and the indecent exposure with others. This will engage people to do disorder manners in the real life. Privacy issues /personal data theft – Many VR games are store and process the personal data’s. Virtual Reality users, and furthermore virtual group is advertising for their business model. Through this the players of VR log with location, age, race, country etc, and Digital footprints identify the real place and may cause an issue like criminal acts. For example in the virtual reality game application the players in Grand theft auto play dangerously, pedestrians, crash in to the buildings and also go to strip the clubs as well as assault prostitutes and harassment for sexual.

B)2-Law and regulationData protection Act 1998
This is the legislation which is falls under the Act 1998 to protect the personal data’s of the humans. According to the UK law governing how a personal data of a specific person is looked by the third party or an organization for their charities. In VR this includes regulate the personal data, protect the data subject, enabling authorities to enforce rules etc. So in the virtual reality according to the law the users input their information’s like age, location and race. This will store and collect the user’s personal data.

Copyright, and patents Act 1998 Design
This means according to this law is coping other organizations works like music sound effects, literacy to control the ways in Virtual world. This will broadcast the ways the copyrights are arise when individual or an organization creates a work and apply as an original as same thing whole copyrights are done by the virtual reality developers. In real world behaviors of people contribute in screen display the situation and let the users to play in a violent way, So this is done in VR platform copies reality architecture and photography’s etc.

Human Rights Act 1998
This is the rights to ask the humans rights, life and to prohibit from any other torture happen by other people liberty of a freedom. Anyways if anything happened for the users it is unlawful for any public bodies. In virtual environment or in artificial world millions of people are comes to play the VR games ,trade, create and to socialize so when an on if any unlawful is happened to any users they are having the rights to complain in Human rights according to the law concern.

The privacy and electronic communication
This is a regulation is based on the electronic communication which will be protecting the private life of a person and gets a new opportunities for business. It means through the electronic method via internet some records are stored and it is marketing in phone. In virtual reality the digital technologies helps to come front in business through the online communication and the online playing game so major interaction happen via online gaming. So it can restrict the sharing personal data’s and also the records are recording in electronic service. Example an embody is needed to have a communication it can be done through the voice or a text to get chat with real person.

B)3-Ethical Theory
Deontological Kantianism by Immanuel Kants
This is the ethical theory which is using for the right and the wrong of action of people. By using the latest technology it is right for the people and its pleasure on their obligations. But these things will be destroy and make an influence as in a bad state. The morality is concerned on the digital world and ethical rules are bind for the people to do their work. This is the theory is used to prohibit the murders, data theft, cheating, suicide these all are fall under the categorical imperative There are two types of rules one is hypo ethical Imperatives and categorical imperative. The morality says that the agent cannot be done the wrong things for the users. Act of willing is cannot say that a person is having a good will so good sequences are can be appear from any of the action done by a person and that will be effect any other innocent people. Bad consequences will comes from the motivated actions. As per to this theory the virtual environment is totally based on the action of an human being because it is an artificial world which is developed based on the real world situations, so good or bad actions will be occur with the users actions. According to Immanuel theory he says that “you always tell the truth to good people than in healthy, win and win” etc.

(A,B ) Professional Issues of Virtual RealityStakeholders – Employees, Communities, Suppliers
Physical issues- By using the VR devices like headset and the eyes covering device it has been causing many health issues like headache, queasiness and also blurred vision and other common side effects. Eye strain, eye twitching all can happen because this platform is using for long term they force to live in artificial situation. Digital addiction- According to the VR the professional get many effects from different ways with the use of latest digital technology, so this will be reduce their involvement in their professional activities and negative impacts including concentration of work, post ponding the works , project steps, poor in their management and also feel as insecure in their working place. So get a negative romantic relationships, disclosure of the private accounts. They disconnect with their professional works. Less of Professional corporation- Professionals most of them use this virtual environment to get change for their life accordingly it has many side effects and it effects in their professional growth. There are many possibilities occur in their corporation for their tasks they sometimes decline their activities, make distance among their co-workers give less effort, because of they spend more times in artificial world. Teledildonic sex relationship –Most of the virtual reality environment course with the domain and present the users relationships as sexual and also by playing they will connect to unknown people and get an experience. The users who are in thousands of miles unknown person it may cause to interact each other’s and falls to Teledildonic sex. For example the fantasies are involving in violence but likely more damages on immersive setting than on a video. So there are some people who act in a wrong way they also act in such a way they are embodies in avatar.B)4-Professional code of conductsPublic interests
The professional practices and also the safeguard for health and protection for the environment and also legitimate the rights on third parties. Accordingly it will be conducting professional activities with any discrimination on sexual, religion, race, and equipments to promote all activities in virtual reality platform and also promote on social level, Concern on the people’s health as well as their privacy.
Professional competence and integrity
Maintaining the knowledge, skills and awareness on the trending technology procedures and standards on the Virtual environment. So the law legislation go on with only the responsibilities means the process workers are avoiding the damages and from the other third parties and property. The VR is a device is developed with and the play station damage and effect the users, but most of them are try to avoid the damages.

Duty to profession
Professionals always should be able to respect on their actions. Because in the virtual environment all are depends on the activities and the behaviors of a person’s and act on the Virtual world. This will develop the participation with the use, according to the law standards professionals able to make better bonds on their work.

(A,B ) Social issues of Virtual RealityStakeholders – Political parties, Media
Religious and spiritual influences- By using this direction than internet to interact in virtual environment any of dimensions can be react. There are 5 dimensions like knowledge, ideology, ritual, emotion, and the behavior in these at least two of these influences will occur. Sometimes it cause to divorce ritual from the tradition and effects for community and homes. Aggressive behavior –When the users starts to get play on VR environment time to time they change to behave aggressive in a way and exposure violence conflicts in real world it can effects in media. The game in VR produces more aggressive thoughts and watching the games in their physical behavior. Sexual impulses- Most of the people are appears with the case of sexual needs, so the users interact through the transferable to real with multi domain users of virtual environment and online they engage for sex in VR. This will affect the families in the community. Limited of traditional – Traditionally this will effects and treats the people easily to addict to VR environment to play the games. After playing they will conduct the role of the play and react in real world so skills get changes and effects to tradition. For example if a person embodies a tall avatar they will communicate aggressively in a way if sorter body is given in the Virtual platform. So it always shows more effective embodies in display.

C) Different perspectives by other writers about on VR on the Ethical, Legal, Profession and Social
C)1Ethical Arguments
1. Dr. Michael Madary & Thomas Metzinger two philosophers in Germany Johames Gutenberg university of Mainz.

These two philosophers are looking for ethical perspectives which means the virtual reality users by playing the games they are run with risks, when they subjected the “illusion of embodied feel that inhabiting the body of an own person” so they says the virtual platforms are looks as an avatar embody. The research was conducted in an ethical manner. The experiments are demonstrated the plasticity of a human’s mind set or the brain process, so this opportunities are more powerful in a form of the behavioral manipulation, commercial and political issues may occur. For that they have an evidence for this it is “Stanford prison experiment” and “mailgrams obedience experiment”. After the users plays and come out of that artificial world they behave in a selfless manner. So these two philosophers says according to the experiment demonstration “with the goal and mitigation harm to public”. Says it’s having an elasticity of side effects after they use the VR platform. For those issues or effects they had done research and given recommendations ethically for the public commercial future. In virtual demonstration it shows that they do not use a serious harm effects.

2. Elis ogle liv technologies CEO cix Liv Stanford university Virtual interaction lab project manager.

Ogle says that concerning on ethical view that VR gives a very powerful psychological presence and users of VR respond according to the experience, and also his arguments wise says on order of agreement how to respond in their real life. According to Stanford lab they focuses on the Virtual Reality, how that can be used for the good behaviors. For that he took an example if any of fear with heights and standing in a skyscraper leads to react physiologically it can effect sweaty palms, increase the heart beat rate. Says as of behavior discrimination against the older people and a study for user reaction, attitudes as well as behavior changes. It can be a different level on the physiological experiences to feel truly and what the people are doing in real world.

c)2Legal Arguments
1. Dentons Robyn Chatwood the 1st lawyer to International law firm he is a HR in VR areas
He argued that as for legally about on Virtual reality platform so IP is the most important in his argument the VR is to play any games. The IP is two categories,” IP rights in VR”,” IP rights in real world”. He said it is used to help people in many ways to prove that he took an example one women is playing the game called QuiVr, in that she experienced as a real sexual assault during that time someone came and rub her chest and she tried to get away. This seem to more real emotional levels and violating in human real life. According to the law the sexual harassment in VR is also begins to start. Because VR is so realistic the users they also can process it in gradual immersive on their self. Functions are ongoing with their characters that will also allow the users to block the privacy and the security.

2. Mark A. Lemley Director of science and technology and law professor at Stanford University
He says VR is still a legal questions in a court, so VR users injure their selves and in some other ways defraud the others death via oral conversation, voice chats, email etc. While considering the users who plays through online games streaming they will be interconnected each other means conducted through network device the interaction will not react directly it can be happen or effect in many ways. This interaction will not appear in one physical domain it harder to regulate effect in a way. In his point of view VR is not a real but it is an artificial which means cable together to show sounds effects, images, and videos to observe in the screen. At that time the users they feel it as a real. This will punish the people in physical world, it’s like street crimes, disturbing the peace of indecent exposures and also the users against VR operators are copyrights to create others own work.

c)3 Professional Arguments
1. Albert Skip Rizzo PhD Professor at USC Leonard Davis school of Gerontology director of Virtual lab and Viterbi School of engineering and physiatrist and behavioral science at USC
He says that according to the current technology the user’s addiction is very high in a level so it is a simple and a kind of motivation for their professional development. As well the users they physically motivate according to their neurological conditions, always they use their hand to hand it is frustrated because they continuously use with the object and gamification. Therefore that they loss more properties which are good to do. In their everyday tasks they face many challenges health wise, professional and functional abilities and activities, somebody can be get motivated, live in their breathing, physical wise and flesh. So motivation is comes while playing in virtual environment.

2. Rhone Brighton Hall senior experienced HR, communication, and line leadership across Australia, Europe, USA and Asia development with commonwealth bank
Her perspective is for the professionals who use the VR platform in their workplace it is making the sexual harassment in their workplace. Users they see the situations and coach them to give a better feedback in the virtual environment. Workers in their workplace they look around and the latest technology it can be restrict their professional behavior. VR scenarios developed with narrative threads based on their directions, she said that professionals get understand their point of view to recognized partnership and deal in similar situation. Her main point is “if we right, that changes everything”.c)4 Social Arguments
1. Jeremy Bileson is a founding director of Stanford university virtual human interaction lab, Thomas more stroke professor in Departments of communication and senior at Stanford center of longevity and professor of education.

He says People meet in the virtual space and explores some changes in social interaction, according to his research on how the people use the Medias, methods they use to interact with each other over through their brains. He tested and said that VR will always change our mind , media so it can affecting their relationship and people are not communicating verbally via text, voice text so it feels like a real and it can effected the people in many ways as wise racism, religious and culture wise. A person gets networked with VR users so that the second person also gets treat poorly on gender, race, religious, race wise threatening occur. This can be occur in an inappropriate manner like sexually playing through online game in another way also he says that it is the best world for the climate change.

2. Mark J.Burns – Guest writer, Sports marketing professional business chronicle and Forbes, sports Techie, CSE
He says that VR is a biggest gaming platform and changer in sports, and in social wised it will be continue as a key distribution means overall about the social media and sports. So virtual environment can create new different experiences on audiences. He expects 3600 will become more accessible and it will allow the virtual users to get experience where to play at home and they get fans and behave as the world’s biggest events and also it can provide the experience viewpoints, so socially it is important sports game figure and also it is a sports betting event, it is connected with the sports industry and change the fans consume and the layers and train the players in VR environment.
Recommendation/ Solutions for the identified Issues
Form a physical safety
There are many different types of issues occur in using the Virtual Reality to reduce the problems be sure before the users of VR use the headset and other devices of VR please set an operation instruction which provided in the instruction leaflet and learn to make a precautions concerning on health and also should adjust your viewing focus do not keep it too much closes to your eyes, avoid to use when you feel tired or slept or under any stress. If any issues are having should consult a doctor before you use the VR devices headset.

Clearing the VR users around the Environment
The users of Virtual Reality need to take free applications and they have to learn about their boundaries exactly where they have to play the VR. It is better and important to have a boundary before get starts to go on Virtual world. Should have an experiences in their movements. Before movements use the devices like site and rotate around your space and see what’s happening real around you make sure and clear your area prevent your head and next starts to walk and play.

Prevent and be secure on personal Data’s
Always concern on logging data’s and keep it in a secured manner. Keep as up to date with patches and concern on keep as continuously as an effective security practices. Be able to control your access, updates of any contents secure on playing online games with another person while to commit in a game live, get log secure all your integration, control reviews comments, usages, visits to verify the access of your VR use approximately and always get backups your data.

Make prevention on criminal activities
Need to set a limit on their personal behavior in the professional area, in some extension the violence can be occur easily and occurs as legally also. So at that time wait and see what type of approach is IP holders should mention the contracts, other types of liabilities as per according to the legal law clearly get understand how the third person manage your personal data and how it can be caught by criminals. So have to take a proactive steps to formulate legally and as in ethical approach use standards procedures.

Stop on getting experiences on artificial life or activities
Always the users of VR shouldn’t get more experiences through artificial world, like playing online games. Falling in to characters, changing the behaviors and styles and also restrict to go to practice on socially unnecessarily. Especially control you’re over estimations in playing games through online. Reinforce the feelings to express and try to avoid the online platforms and non-related games, estimation which will be change your behaviors.

Choose or coordinate with partnership manner in Professional area
Always better to choose a team while plating the VR games then only it will be collaborate the members professionally. Follow with the procedures and the standards to produce the good work and make your surroundings make perfection and involve with number of people to share and gain your knowledge, idea. Make a step correctly and should avoid to make miss behavioral abilities as well better to work randomly when you make a partnership in VR platform.
Limit the freedom method on VR usage
There are many impacts which will be occur traditionally because all the beings are having the freedom to act, but according to that use of their virtual reality traditional movies, actions all needed to reduce the violence. So always protecting your own interests without fall under the individual interests and strongly be identify your own particular body on social network on another way. Should restrict the impractical or unnecessary creativities of another personal.

Importance of Ethical approach in Virtual Reality and how it helps the IT professional for his Professional Development
Ethical Approach on Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality is a platform which will shows as 3D effects, artificial world. VR is capable to transport every situations directly, so the VR developer’s creators all before they produce their project thinking about moral principles or ethics and the impressions. The discussions is thoroughly done and they rewrite the rules which is to be take the games and turn in to VR platform. The creators of VR think that all users are understand contents game and how it will effect each of the users VR immersive witness which will be connect or linked with moral attitudes and responsible for distant others. For that media and experiences get connected and the functions happen in moral address therefore that the paper it will be explorers moral and potential of VR. As well as in communication of human also inherent the moral risks and improper distance on games. Players who plays the VR games evaluate “Moral sense” and gamers of VR called as “Moral beings” so it is construct as indirect code and values. So Virtual environment is concerned on with ethical questions on VR games and the action in community is form as an ethical status to appear.

IT professionals Development
Improves in their design and development area
Virtual reality is having both good and bad according to the game platform the IT professional’s takes more uses and help by using the VR most helpful in imagining of their project without doing any prototype to develop their project. It is done easily through the uses of virtual environment and the experience of that. As well as they IT professionals are can be able to create the CAD designs to their project and they get collaborate in creation as interior and exterior project development so by the workflow they will identify the problems, workflow. After they use the VR this will most of the professionals try to do in their work and tasks.

Make a good and better connection with IT industries
Industry wise the IT professionals get connected, like can be joint as a group s in social area and it also helps to organize a meeting for every month with the developers and entrepreneur as well meet the people, get new opportunities and it will help for their professional growth, related on to gain new projects share partnerships. SO virtual reality not only the bad effects it has some good abilities to get understand by the users as well in TH professional wise they connect with industry colleagues more effective in a manner and promote their IT fields.
Develop their needed interpersonal skills
So especially on the IT industry it gives more experienced in 3D modeling, C++ means in programming side they develop their skills how and which methods codes can be used in different ways so thinking abilities get changes in creativity of their IT related project, so it helps to a newer skills and set great visualization helps to reduce form factors as well increase the performances improves the connectivity. It professionals they can develop their leadership skills, communication and the conference abilities, making a successful decision making while facing in their project development therefore that VR will provides exactly of this practice.

IT professionals improves their services and organization
By the use of this VR IT professionals will be modify and develop their project management operations successfully. It will allow to the flexibility of their delivery of service in a high speed as wise in economic levels. Virtual practices helps in their business opportunities and get many projects they get an idea how to develop and sell their developed developing IT projects as in a large scale. Virtual or the artificial world also proves to reduce incidence and easily define their services and targets of their organization and perform well in their team and analyze, identify the solutions, find the risks, cost for their project and manage the IT process improve their scopes.

Develop and creates a Social Network bonds
Virtual Reality is a kind of a learning aid and a system for their creation, and to have a bond socially as well it helps for their team discussion. The VR games shows the social connectivity more so it helps and keeps them for the best collaboration through that it provides the functional creations. For the IT professionals it is a learning and get n to social bonds get more connectivity with between internally and local wide. So they get more familiar easily example people they share through online characters and added chat s, email so by playing game they get connect to the social network develop their members inn IT field.

ConclusionThe virtual Reality is an artificial 3D effect creation of world, the users currently are addicted and connected with the trending digital world. Therefore that the ethics is considered in VR platformddI the moral principles, codes standards procedure are considered and developed this platform. But there can be good and bad effects occur by using the Virtual Environment. Therefore that issues occur in ethically, legally, professionally and socially for the specified issues the solutions are also identified as well there are many different perspectives are concerned by the other researchers and also the virtual environment is helps for IT professionals too to develop their professionalism.
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