2.10. Empirical Literature Review
The study conducted by Chala (2011) indicates the Ambo town has a total of 42 kilometers length water supply networks, which includes both primary and secondary distribution pipe lines and 21 public taps, which are distributed in the town and managed by the users’ villages. Concerning water connection, only 33.42% of the total urban households have private connection. The remaining 66.58% of the urban dwellers yard connection depend on public taps and vendors for water source. These sources are used due to lack of money, shortage of water supply and unavailability of distribution lines in the nearby and too complicated procedures set by to get connection.
Kebede (2015) finding concerning the source of water is access to the water supply from chose sources, 98 (73.7%) of the respondents have no access to the pipelined water connection and 99 (74.4%) of the respondents have not accessed developed daily taped water for their supply of water consumption. The average water demands of respondents have demand is greater than supply of water in the town.
The study conducted by Wonduante (2013) indicates water supply of adequate quantity and acceptable quality is one of the basic needs of human beings, but the provision of potable water in Gondar town is inefficient. The situation is getting worse due to the population growth and spatial expansion of the town which outstripped its ability to supply sufficient water for its inhabitants. The existing sources of potable water are both surface and ground water which reach the customers or end users through Private meter connection and public water points. However, since the sources decrease in amount, especially during peak dry season, the amount of production is not adequate even for those who have access to it. The amount of production is also further reduced by less well working hours, limited number of boreholes and through losses including mechanical, frictional and head losses and leakage. Moreover, the state of water supply in the town in terms of coverage both in spatial and population, reliability, accessibility, and sustainability is not at the required standard. The major constraints of distribution systems identified are low density of pipeline networks, limited number of public water points and their unfair distribution, inadequate pressure in the pipe and the absence of well prepared maps for distribution pipelines. As a result, water consumption is affected in the town due to these physical factors and socioeconomic factors such as population growth, household income and size that affected their waters consumption.
Chala (2011) study recognizes potable water supply coverage to urban dwellers is the main concern of government in these days and also major issue in the achievement of MDGs. Hence, Ethiopian Government 2010 MDGs report stated that national urban water coverage was 91.5 percent. In the same year, Oromia Water Resource Management Bureau reported that, regional urban water coverage reached 84.2 percent. However, the study result indicated that, the existing water supply coverage of Ambo town is 40.9 percent, which is below half of both the national and regional reports.
Meseret (2012) study indicates the per capita water consumption has a negative relationship with household size both from urban and rural areas. Besides that queuing time negatively correlate with per capita consumption in urban areas. There is a positive relationship between waiting time, distance, adequacy and quality of water source for the consumption of households from unimproved sources in rural areas. In contrast queuing time and income were the main factors resulting households reluctance to collect water from improved sources in the urban areas. This leads to vulnerability of the households to water borne diseases. As a result of this it is better to reduce the queuing time by installing additional water supply points. Because the time devoted for water collection losses the possibility of spending on other productive activities. To understand the people’s perception on the quality of their water sources of both improved and unimproved, it is evident that people have the capacity to identify the quality of their water through test, odor and color. Furthermore test was the main indicator of water quality in the study area in which 64% of the respondents measure the quality of the source.