College Papers

199621015423600 281940384175Academic Year 2017/2018 1st semester 00Academic Year 2017/2018 1st semester 1st Midterm Implementation and evaluation HEP 412 142176523495STUDENT’S NAME

199621015423600
281940384175Academic Year 2017/2018 1st semester
00Academic Year 2017/2018 1st semester

1st Midterm
Implementation and evaluation
HEP 412
142176523495STUDENT’S NAME: Alhnouf AlrokbanSTUDENT’S ID:
00STUDENT’S NAME: Alhnouf AlrokbanSTUDENT’S ID:

4 3 5 0 0 4 3 2 6
Please read carefully:
Word count: 1413
Deadline for submission: Monday 24th Sep 2018 12PM
Maximum mark 25
Obtained mark Signature You don’t look strong by bullying.

Introduction:
bullying is a behavior happening during childhood and adolescents age, this behavior has a long-term negative effect on those who faced physical, verbal, or social bullying.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/J.IJPAM.2016.01.002″,”ISSN”:”2352-6467″,”abstract”:”BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of bullying among intermediate school students in Saudi Arabia to inform preventive measures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Qualitative methods were applied. The study was conducted at four intermediate schools. Students, parents, and school professionals participated, and data were collected through observations, interviews, and focus groups. Emergent themes and subthemes were identified through coding.

RESULTS
A total of 91 individuals participated: 40 students, 31 school professionals, and 20 parents/caregivers. Three main themes and multiple subthemes were identified: 1) types of bullying, 2) factors encouraging bullying, and 3) the impact of bullying. The lack of safe environments, recreational facilities, and inconsistencies in addressing problematic behaviors were subthemes that were found to be conducive to bullying, whereas dislike of school, racism, aggressiveness, and social isolation were emergent subthemes that were reflective of the potential impact of bullying. With this process, a model for bullying practices is described.

CONCLUSION
A better understanding of the bullying experiences among adolescents has been obtained. Preventive measures need to target the factors that the participants identified as conducive to bullying.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”AlBuhairan”,”given”:”Fadia S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Eissa”,”given”:”Majid”,”non-dropping-particle”:”Al”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Alkufeidy”,”given”:”Nourah”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Almuneef”,”given”:”Maha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″,”6″,”1″},”page”:”64-70″,”publisher”:”Elsevier”,”title”:”Bullying in early adolescence: An exploratory study in Saudi Arabia”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”3″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4c8a4aa7-c12f-3764-a667-fd4435c79cf8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(1)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(1)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(1)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(1)
bullying has been reported in different settings such as work but it has an extra harmful effect in schools because victims of bullying at schools are in young age. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.18099/ijetv.v0iOF.6844″,”ISSN”:”2395-4272″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Gorea”,”given”:”Rakesh”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”October”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”title”:”Bullying in schools : Epidemiology and prevention”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=57212b37-92c6-415b-8808-24bd83b3c7bd”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(2)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(2)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(2)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(2) Students might be bullied for their appearance, the way of their talking, and other else. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/J.IJPAM.2016.01.002″,”ISSN”:”2352-6467″,”abstract”:”BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of bullying among intermediate school students in Saudi Arabia to inform preventive measures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Qualitative methods were applied. The study was conducted at four intermediate schools. Students, parents, and school professionals participated, and data were collected through observations, interviews, and focus groups. Emergent themes and subthemes were identified through coding.

RESULTS
A total of 91 individuals participated: 40 students, 31 school professionals, and 20 parents/caregivers. Three main themes and multiple subthemes were identified: 1) types of bullying, 2) factors encouraging bullying, and 3) the impact of bullying. The lack of safe environments, recreational facilities, and inconsistencies in addressing problematic behaviors were subthemes that were found to be conducive to bullying, whereas dislike of school, racism, aggressiveness, and social isolation were emergent subthemes that were reflective of the potential impact of bullying. With this process, a model for bullying practices is described.

CONCLUSION
A better understanding of the bullying experiences among adolescents has been obtained. Preventive measures need to target the factors that the participants identified as conducive to bullying.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”AlBuhairan”,”given”:”Fadia S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Eissa”,”given”:”Majid”,”non-dropping-particle”:”Al”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Alkufeidy”,”given”:”Nourah”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Almuneef”,”given”:”Maha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″,”6″,”1″},”page”:”64-70″,”publisher”:”Elsevier”,”title”:”Bullying in early adolescence: An exploratory study in Saudi Arabia”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”3″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4c8a4aa7-c12f-3764-a667-fd4435c79cf8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(1)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(1)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(1)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(1)
Bullying defined as when individuals or groups use their force by inflicting harm on those who they less power and do it frequently and intentionally, also it’s some kind of abuse of force against one who can’t defend him or herself. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”421″,”ISBN”:”Brief No: RBX03-06″,”ISSN”:”Brief No: RBX03-06″,”abstract”:”Cyber bullying This briefing is based on research carried out by the Anti-Bullying Alliance London Regional Programme. The research was undertaken in summer 2005 by the Unit for School and Family Studies, Goldsmiths College, University of London. The full research findings are available from www.anti-bullyingalliance.org What is cyber bullying? Cyber bullying describes forms of bullying using electronic devices such as mobile phones and computers. It is becoming more prevalent, with the increasing use of modern technology. The research In summer 2005, we investigated the current nature and extent of cyber bullying among school pupils in the London area using a questionnaire. Ninety-two students aged 1116, from 14 different London schools, responded to the questionnaire. It comprised multiple-choice questions, with some qualitative sections, and took 2025 minutes to complete. The questionnaire looked at the incidence of cyber bullying inside and outside of school and distinguished between seven types of cyber bullying: text messaging picture or video clips (via mobile phone cameras) phone calls emails online chat rooms instant messaging websites. The research assessed awareness of the different forms of cyber bullying and the perceived impact of cyber bullying in relation to more traditional forms of bullying. Age and gender differences were also examined. The findings We found that 20 students (22 per cent) had experienced cyber bullying at least once and five (6.6 per cent) had experienced being bullied in this way more frequently in the previous two months. Phone calls, text messaging and emailing were the most common forms of cyber bullying both inside and outside of school, while chat-room bullying was the least common. The prevalence of cyber bullying was greater outside school than in school. Age and gender There were no significant differences related simply to age, but girls were significantly more likely to be cyber bullied than boys especially by text messages and phone calls. A significant interaction between age and gender was found in relation to the effects of email bullying, and the use of instant messaging. Awareness of cyber bullying Students responses differed concerning awareness of each type of cyber bullying occurring in school or among their friends. They were most aware of bullying by picture/video clips (46 per cent knew of this taking place), followed by phone calls (37 per cent) and text messaging (29 per cent). Other methods w…”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Smith”,”given”:”Peter”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mahdavi”,”given”:”Jess”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carvalho”,”given”:”Manuel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tippett”,”given”:”Neil”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Research Brief”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”July”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”page”:”1-69″,”title”:”An investigation into cyberbullying , its forms , awareness and impact , and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=155acb55-3750-4649-b651-d135325ddd57″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(3)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(3)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(3)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(3) In 12,757 Saudi participants in Health Surveillance system, 25% of them says that they are bullied. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.06.009″,”ISBN”:”1054-139X(Print)”,”ISSN”:”18791972″,”PMID”:”26299553″,”abstract”:”Purpose With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia’s population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations. Results A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient. Conclusion Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”AlBuhairan”,”given”:”Fadia S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tamim”,”given”:”Hani”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dubayee”,”given”:”Mohammad”,”non-dropping-particle”:”Al”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Aldhukair”,”given”:”Shahla”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Shehri”,”given”:”Sulieman”,”non-dropping-particle”:”Al”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tamimi”,”given”:”Waleed”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bcheraoui”,”given”:”Charbel”,”non-dropping-particle”:”El”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Magzoub”,”given”:”Mohi Eldin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Vries”,”given”:”Nanne”,”non-dropping-particle”:”De”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Alwan”,”given”:”Ibrahim”,”non-dropping-particle”:”Al”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Adolescent Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”263-269″,”publisher”:”Elsevier Inc.”,”title”:”Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings from “jeeluna””,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”57″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ef29e6d7-229a-476a-bfa7-0114e7f72ed4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(4)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(4)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(4)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(4) As well, another study showed that 21.5% of Saudi adults reported an exposure to bully in their first 18 years of life, and the male is more exposed than female by 28.2% to 14.7%. (1)
Bullying or bullies themselves showed low self-esteem than those who have not relation of bullying. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1002/ab.1010″,”ISBN”:”0096140X”,”ISSN”:”0096-140X”,”PMID”:”11774258″,”abstract”:”From the rapidly growing literature on bullying, it is increasingly recognised that peer relationship problems as manifested in being bullied are associated with low self-esteem. However, the literature on self-esteem in relation to children who bully others is controversial. The objective of this paper is to elucidate further our understanding of the relationship between self-concept and bullying behaviour. Data from a nationwide study of bullying behaviour carried out in Ireland during 1993-1994 have been reviewed. The relevant results from 8,249 school children aged 8 to 18 years are presented. The paper examines the global and dimensional nature of self-esteem and how it relates to children and adolescents who either have been victimised or bullied others. A distinction is made between “pure victims,” “pure bullies,” and children and adolescents who were both bullied and who bullied others. In other words, pure victims were those who had not bullied others, and pure bullies had not themselves been bullied. Those who were both bullied and bullied others were subdivided further into victims who bully occasionally, sometimes, and frequently and bullies who are victimised, occasionally, sometimes, and frequently. The results show that children of both primary and post-primary age who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies, or both had significantly lower global self-esteem than did children who had neither bullied nor been bullied. However, the pure bullies, in contrast to the pure victims, placed the same value on their physical attractiveness and attributes and on their popularity as did their peers who had not bullied others or been bullied. The bully-victims of all ages had the lowest self-esteem of the subgroups in the study. Also, the more frequently children were victimised or bullied others, the lower was their global self-esteem. The typology and frequency of bullying and the age of the children when they were involved in bullying influenced the status of the specific domains of self-esteem. There were, e.g., significant differences in anxiety between the pure bullies of post-primary age and their peers who had not bullied others or been bullied. The post-primary children who bullied most frequently were the least anxious. The results indicate that high self-esteem protects children and adolescents from involvement in bullying. Thus, in view of the strong relationship between self-esteem and bullying that has been found in the present pa…”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”O’Moore”,”given”:”M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kirkham”,”given”:”C”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Aggressive Behavior”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2001″},”title”:”Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behaviour”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b94e92fa-096b-4d36-a79f-2328191f147c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(5)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(5)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(5)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(5) also, its affect negatively on the victims psychological status, through anxiety, depression, and Self-worth. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.08.002″,”ISBN”:”0140-1971 (Print)\r0140-1971 (Linking)”,”ISSN”:”01401971″,”PMID”:”15925686″,”abstract”:”Approximately one-third of children report being victims of bullying, and this victimization has been linked to a number of negative psychological outcomes. In the present study, we examined the effects of perceived isolation on the link between victimization before and during high school and stress symptoms during college. Consistent with our predictions, victimization appears to do the most damage to those who felt isolated during high school. These results suggest that schools should reframe their approach to the bullying problem, and devote more resources to helping students feel less isolated. © 2004 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Newman”,”given”:”Matthew L.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Holden”,”given”:”George W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Delville”,”given”:”Yvon”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Adolescence”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2005″},”page”:”343-357″,”title”:”Isolation and the stress of being bullied”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”28″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=44ede5a2-cab2-4016-8da9-8a1b3ee1ee8c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(6)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(6)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(6)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(6)
Physical changes can occur on the victim, who they may cope with bullying by weight increasing and eating disorders coming from over-pressure on them.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.beem.2012.12.002″,”ISBN”:”1878-1594″,”ISSN”:”1521690X”,”PMID”:”23731874″,”abstract”:”Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Puhl”,”given”:”Rebecca M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”King”,”given”:”Kelly M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”117-127″,”publisher”:”Elsevier Ltd”,”title”:”Weight discrimination and bullying”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=608205b8-c058-4fed-bcc6-b642f59a75bd”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(7)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(7)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(7)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(7) Furthermore, , victims more likely to absence from school and stay in the home because of bullying, and they avoid school because of the feeling of unsafe.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:””””,”abstract”:”For the most part, studies of the consequences of bullying in schools have concentrated upon health outcomes for children persistently bullied by their peers. Conclusions have been influenced by how bullying has been conceptualized and assessed, the specific health outcomes investigated, and the research method and data analysis employed. Results from cross-sectional surveys suggest that being victimized by peers is significantly related to comparatively low levels of psychological well-being and social adjustment and to high levels of psychological distress and adverse physical health symptoms. Retrospective reports and studies suggest that peer victimization may contribute to later difficulties with health and well-being. Longitudinal studies provide stronger support for the view that peer victimization is a significant causal factor in schoolchildren’s lowered health and well-being and that the effects can be long-lasting. Further evidence from longitudinal studies indicates that the tendency to bully others at school significantly predicts subsequent antisocial and violent behaviour. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rigby”,”given”:”K”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”9″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”583-590″,”title”:”Consequences of bullying in schools. References.”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”48″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b3502237-c9bc-4f27-aabc-59b10411e573″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(8)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(8)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(8)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(8) Thus, that will affect the academic performance of the students which will lead to having a lower degree than other normal students.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.12816/0000097″,”ISSN”:”1016-8923″,”abstract”:”O bjective: School bullying is recognized as a global problem with serious academic, physical, social, and psychiatric consequences. The objective of the present review is to inform lay and formal psychological theories proposed for the understanding of the cultural, social, personality and school-related contextual factors implicated in school bullying in the Arab world and in order to invoke the need for the advancement of national policies, research agendas, and school focused anti-bullying programs. Method: A literature search was conducted for the purposes of reviewing the literature available on school bullying. Results: While peer victimization has been a preoccupation of Europeans and North Americans for many decades, interest in school bullying in the Arab world is a recent phenomenon. The limited prevalence studies on school bullying in the Arab world suggest varying rates with 20.9% of middle-school adolescents reporting bullying in the United Arab Emirates, 31.9% in Morocco, 33.6% in Lebanon, 39.1% in Oman, and 44.2% in Jordan; boys typically endorsing more engagement in peer victimization than girls. Conclusion: There is a need for more research in the Arab world concerning forms, signs, locations and consequences of school bullying in addition to national policies and school-based, anti-bulling program initiatives.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kazarian”,”given”:”Shahe S”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ammar”,”given”:”Joumana”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The Arab Journal of Psychiatry”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”37-45″,”title”:”School bullying in the Arab world: A review”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”24″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4881a42f-313a-4530-b0a8-0a42cbec4545″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(9)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(9)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(9)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(9)
According to the health issues and consequences of exposing to victimization in schools, there are several consequences of violence and harassment in schools such as physical injuries, mental illness, higher level of sadness and suicide tendencies. (1) In addition, Exposure to bullying in childhood results a chronic stress. Therefore, long-term of stress raise the chances of having chronic diseases such as heart diseases and diabetes. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1097/HRP.0000000000000137 “,”ISBN”:”1067-3229 “,”abstract”:”Once dismissed as an innocuous experience of childhood, bullying is now recognized as having significant psychological effects, particularly with chronic exposure. Victims of bullying are at risk for a number of psychiatric disturbances, and growing evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of bullying, as with other forms of trauma and chronic stress, create additional health risks. We review the literature on the known sequelae of bullying, including psychiatric and physiological health effects, with a focus on implications for the victim. In addition, since it is now well established that early and chronic exposure to stress has a significant negative impact on health outcomes, we explore the implications of this research in relation to bullying and victimization in childhood. In particular, we examine how aspects of the stress response, via epigenetic, inflammatory, and metabolic mediators, have the capacity to compromise mental and physical health, and to increase the risk of disease. Research on the relevant mechanisms associated with bullying and on potential interventions to decrease morbidity is urgently needed. “,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zarate-Garza”,”given”:”Pablo Patricio”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Biggs”,”given”:”Bridget K”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Croarkin”,”given”:”Paul”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Morath”,”given”:”Brooke”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Leffler”,”given”:”Jarrod”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cuellar-Barboza”,”given”:”Alfredo”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tye”,”given”:”Susannah J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Harvard review of psychiatry “,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2 “,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”89-95″,”publisher-place”:”United States “,”title”:”How Well Do We Understand the Long-Term Health Implications of Childhood Bullying? “,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”25 “},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ea913808-d89c-41e5-a5fe-f77d2eb086c3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(10)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(10)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(10)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(10)
a study done in Saudi Arabia showed that 48% of students are suffering from mental illness, 41% of them are males and 51% of them are females. Thus, the overall percentages were high. Females scored higher percentage of mental illness than males. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.4103/2230-8229.94015″,”ISBN”:”2229-340X (Electronic)”,”ISSN”:”1319-1683″,”PMID”:”22518359″,”abstract”:”BACKGROUND: Adolescents experience rapid biological, psychological, and social transitions that can be associated with mental health problems. During the high school period there are also more academic stressors. OBJECTIVE: (1) To study the prevalence of mental disorders in high school (grade 12) students. (2) To study some related sociodemographic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study, using GHQ-28, that included 354 students randomly selected from grade 12 in four high schools – two male and two female high schools – in the National Guard Housing (Iskan), in Kashmalaan (suburb of Riyadh). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of mental disorders was found to be 48% (41% in males and 51% in females); more than 80% of these cases were mild to moderate. Females showed significantly more severe disorders than males (P = 0.017) and students with excellent performance degrees showed a significantly lower rate of mental disorders than others (P = 0.021). However, our study did not show a significant association between psychiatric disorders and other social variables (family size, birth order, and polygamous family) or smoking. CONCLUSION: The adolescent age groups in our community had high rates of mental disorders, which required more attention from the family, as well as the educational and health institutes in our country.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Al-Sughayr”,”given”:”A M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ferwana”,”given”:”M S”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”J Family Community Med”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”title”:”Prevalence of mental disorders among high school students in National Guard Housing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6e6cdf9c-638c-4653-b080-f6108ed28cff”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(11)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(11)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(11)
Focusing on the environmental aspects that make a kid exposed to victimization or makes a kid practices violence, a conducted cross-sectional study finds that absence of security and safety in the school environment can increase the incidence of violence in that school. Also, they reported that when a school doesn’t have entertainment activities the more likely bullying happens. They also stated that the strong relationship between student-teachers and parents-teachers are so important to reduce and prevent violence at schools. (1)
The rational:
Bullying affect negatively the quality of life of the victim students; also, it could affect the society in many ways by graduate less educated students. (6,1)
So, as a health educator we should touch this problem and try hardly to solve it as much as we can to improve the quality of life.
Thus, it’s so important to address bullying and measure the knowledge of it among societies by doing an awareness campaign to show its consequences in schools particularly students face bullying from Their peers. Goal:
increase the awareness of students about the effects of bullying
Objectives:
1- Apply a lecture for students about school bullying and the effect of it on their life.

2- Collaborate with school teachers to explore bullying victims’ students and help them to overcome it.

3- Encourage victim’s students to seek help by asking school staff and their families.

Setting:
This program will be implemented in government schools. I chose this place because it’s easy to reach the main target group, also because the school is a learning environment which contains all the educational material we need it like projectors.

Program description:
The intervention program will be implemented to educate and change behavior by visiting schools. There will be a collaboration between us and the National safety program.
The reason behind using this title for the program (You don’t look strong by bullying.)
was to take the attention of the students, who actually behave this way to prove they are strong.

The program will have five main steps, the first step focus on gathering information of bullying at school through distributing questioners to the students, to discover the student’s knowledge and attitude toward bullying, analyze how many students face bullying in this school, and to minimize this number. Also, this will help us to address appropriate program depending on the needs then educate them about what they must know about bullying. To understand the right meaning of bullying, we will do a representative scene to put the students under the whole image of bullying, like making jokes of other, hitting, kicking, etc.

The second step is about raising awareness of the effect of bullying on the human body, nourishment, isolation, self -efficacy also his academic performance.

The third step, to inform the students about how the importance of seeking help from school staff to override the problem.
The forth step Inform students about the services provided by the National Safety Program in their national project to reduce bullying. As well, how to reach them and the serves they provide to the community.

In addition to the presentation materials which is a PowerPoint presentation and videos, each step will have flyers, to keep the information available to the students at any time, and to remind them about the importance of this topic.
I will use the health believe model during this intervention, which include perceived severity, susceptibility, threat benefits, barrier, to change the behavior.
there would be an advertisement before the lecture, to inform others about the day and time of the lecture
Basic logic model:
The implementation plan for this education intervention was designed based on Basic logic model, this model has a basic-elements to organize the. A logic model is can be very useful to organize planning and programs.
Planned work:
Inputs:
1.1.1 Personnel : The persons how will participate in this program implementation are volunteers. the needed of human resources will be:
Two for collect the questioners from students, four of them will educate the students, three will be responsible for the designing the flyers and Advertisement. Also, we will need a three for the public relations to cooperate with school and the National project to reduce bullying from the National safety program.
So, the human resources needed is a twelve.

1.1.2 Equipment:
Projectors, photoshop app
1.1.3 Supplies:
Papers for questions, and flyers.

The questions they will be asked a yes/no questions about whether they had been victims of physical abuse or verbal abuse, and whether they had ever ”hit other students who were smaller than them.
As well, open-ended questions. as an example: what did you do if you faced bullying?
who will you seek to help you?
And so on.

1.1.4 Financial resources:
From princess Nora university.

Outputs:
1.2.1 Products:
We will need to address the information to the fullest a video, flyers, PowerPoint presentation.

The video will include the story of a student being bullied from the way of his taking, waking, and his look and how he overcomes it through telling his family which provide support to him, and by telling the social counselor at school to solve the problem.
Flyers would be do and don’t do thing’s in case of bullying. Like for example:
respect the other physical appearance, don’t make a joke on other appearance.
Help the victim of bullying and protect him, don’t just stay away without doing things.
Tell your counselor about what you faced, don’t be shy to talk
finally, the PowerPoint presentation to do the lecture, which include the bullying definition, causes and consequences, and the treatment
1.2.2 Services:
Conduct a training course for the staff on how to communicate with students to obtain the desired benefit of this program, also design courses for members who design flyers, advertisement, and videos.

2. Intended results:
2.1. Short-term outcome: Students knowledge about the effects of bullying was increased.

2.2. Mid-term outcome: bullying victims start to report about their suffering.

2.3. Long term outcome: bullying decreased in the schools.

3- Timeline:
3.1- Task development guidelines:
Gantt charts
Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb
Appoint committee -6314301505014478000 Set objectives 252478255953254635895350 Gather data 4603751104900 Analyze data 127010795000 Identify risk factors 5034471524000
References:
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. AlBuhairan FS, Al Eissa M, Alkufeidy N, Almuneef M. Bullying in early adolescence: An exploratory study in Saudi Arabia. Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med Internet. 2016 Jun 1 cited 2018 Sep 21;3(2):64–70. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352646716000089#bib4
2. Gorea R. Bullying in schools?: Epidemiology and prevention. 2017;(October).
3. Smith P, Mahdavi J, Carvalho M, Tippett N. An investigation into cyberbullying , its forms , awareness and impact , and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying. Res Brief Internet. 2006;(July):1–69. Available from: http://www.anti-bullyingalliance.org.uk/pdf/CyberbullyingreportFINAL230106.pdf
4. AlBuhairan FS, Tamim H, Al Dubayee M, Aldhukair S, Al Shehri S, Tamimi W, et al. Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings from “jeeluna.” J Adolesc Heal Internet. 2015;57(3):263–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.06.009
5. O’Moore M, Kirkham C. Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behaviour. Aggress Behav. 2001;
6. Newman ML, Holden GW, Delville Y. Isolation and the stress of being bullied. J Adolesc. 2005;28(3):343–57.
7. Puhl RM, King KM. Weight discrimination and bullying. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab Internet. 2013;27(2):117–27. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2012.12.002
8. Rigby K. Consequences of bullying in schools. References. Can J Psychiatry / La Rev Can Psychiatr. 2003;48(9):583–90.
9. Kazarian SS, Ammar J. School bullying in the Arab world: A review. Arab J Psychiatry. 2013;24(1):37–45.
10. Zarate-Garza PP, Biggs BK, Croarkin P, Morath B, Leffler J, Cuellar-Barboza A, et al. How Well Do We Understand the Long-Term Health Implications of Childhood Bullying? Internet. Vol. 25, Harvard review of psychiatry . United States ; 2017. p. 89–95. Available from: http://sdl.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwtV1LT9tAEF4FkKpeUN-F0mrv1VJ7dx2vD6ji1UIfEspD7S2y12uKBDYK4VB-PTOetWNDVZVDc7CjVTJyPF9mZscz3zCm5HYg7tgEcBvOIPOJ0TaUVqtCYWStzRDpSALsdx5_ScYjM96Lvg4GzYTD5dp_VTysgeqxkfYBym-FwgK8BwjAEUAAx3-CAY6M-4H5uYMKzu-nbS9LHXF-q8pTMQHj3LQjHXcLzKlSwzMfI0_377o7ulcJ2MwWGrUtMCe9-uk6KY304k58Tuc3KUWt2XnlhwNQGVgvTb9X95AtlgnY_XmVzv3YsF4lI8L3F30FmUO7GQxq1fTmFnylAJNCRtPRmh5GAuxO0rXR1BztsSg7BtckHddN4zrvOQUiGz4anRBZZfMKiW2mz8F9xze2FYvNs3qQMrsnBVnaL_Izu9hxpZiOV9gaBJYBFpgebv9cUkBLXwHrf3PTyJnEH_50bb1AqbflqUOfyRO27vcsfJfQ9ZQNXPmMPfruqzKesxGAjCPI-EEFZ74EGQeQ8RZknEDGuyDjVcFbkPEGZB9fsOmnw8n-kfCzOgT8n00kjIZYMQBnlalQ4pO9IJMmhWA-LjJwAdZaGVuXh84UEPHbKI2dKoZWaW1NmqZKvWSrZVW614xLa5LMqnwYqUgXCmVpFWShgb2ITfJ4g4nmxswuiZJl9jf1bLBXdPfaT0sjYxkqtflASW_YY8QvZeC22Opifu3espWr_PxdrepbmjiBpw
11. Al-Sughayr AM, Ferwana MS. Prevalence of mental disorders among high school students in National Guard Housing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Fam Community Med. 2012;

Marking Criteria
Element Sub-Element Adequately done
(2 marks) Poorly done
(1 mark) Not done
(0 mark)
Topic Appropriate choice of a health-related program Introduction Good introduction and rationalization of the chosen topic/program Input Personnel
Equipment
Supplies
Financial resources Output Products
Services
Infrastructure Short-term
outcome Change in awareness, skills, knowledge Mid-term
outcome Change in the behaviour or environment Long-term
outcome Change in health status, risk reduction or quality of life Language Is academic language used ? (i.e. reasonably understandable English without elementary errors in grammar/spelling? Word count Word count reached with no more/less than 1500 words Overall
presentation Clear and organized overall presentation of the report Total Score /30 =/25