College Papers

1 EIX 2001 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SEMESTER 2

1

EIX 2001
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
SEMESTER 2 (2017/2018)

GROUP ASSIGNMENT
‘POVERTY IN AFRICA’

SUBMITTED FROM:
Name Matric Number
1. INTAN MAZNI BINTI MADZLAN EIA160046
2. NURSYAMIHA BINTI MAHAMOOD EIA160158
3. NURUL ALIA BINTI ABDUL RAZALI EIA160161
4. NURUL AQILA BINTI ISMAIL EIA160162
5. SYASYA NURHIDAYAH BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN EIA160204

SUBMITTED TO: DR. MEHEDI MASUD

2

Table of Content

No Topics Page
1 Introduction 3
2 Overview 4
3 Background 5
4 Theory 6
5 Type and definition of poverty 7
6 Factors/ Causes 8-11
7 Effects 12-14
8 Challenges/ Barriers to reduce poverty 15-19
9 Strategies/ Policies to reduce poverty 20-21
10 Conclusion 22
11 References 23-25

3

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Africa is the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent (the first
being Asia in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including
near islands, it covers 6% of Earth’s total surface area and 20% of its total land area. With 1.2
billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world’s human population. The
continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red
Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and
the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully
recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states
with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in
the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern
Hemisphere. Africa’s average population is the youngest amongst all the
continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4.
Algeria is Africa’s largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa,
particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and
the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and
their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago,
including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo
erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found
in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only
continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a
large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European
countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa originated from a process
of decolonisation in the 20th century. African nations cooperate through the establishment of
the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.

4

2.0 OVERVIEW

In South Africa, 50% of the general population live below the poverty level. The numbers
are higher for Africans particularly Africans on reserves. Although South Africa’s modern
economy allows for an agricultural reserve that could feed the population a diet of 6,000
calories a day, there is widespread hunger and malnutrition. Anywhere from 1 to 2/3 of all
black children grow up underweight and undernourished.
Despite South Africa’s access to electricity and good medical facilities, the infant mortality
rate (per 1,000 infants born) is between 94 and 125 (reported during 1981-1985). 2/3 of the
population do not have electricity. African children are 9 to 10 times less likely to see their 1st
birthday than white children. Other gross inequalities exist in education and income severely
limiting the health and growth potential of South Africa’s blacks. South Africa’s current policy
of apartheid has done much to exacerbate this situation.
The forced removals of portions of the population, the prohibition of portions of the
population, the prohibition of black urbanization and the preclusion of black organizations have
blocked the path of socioeconomic progress and equality. A metamorphosis in South African
society is needed. Specifically, the redistribution of wealth and the development of
organizations which promote fair practice and equality should be implemented.

5

3.0 BACKGROUND

Where the Poor Live Using the World Bank’s measure of extreme income poverty, there
are around 1.2 billion people in extreme poverty. Around 26 percent of those, mainly in sub-
Saharan Africa, live in low-income countries as classified by the World Bank (below $1,025
GDP per person in 2011). Another 58 percent, mainly in Asia, live in lower middle-income
countries (between $1,026 and $4,035 GDP per person) such as China, India, and Indonesia.
Around 17 percent of the extreme poor live in upper middle-income countries. The high
proportion (74%) of the extreme poor living in middle income countries is not entirely
surprising given that the MICs account for approximately 86% of the population of the
developing world. Nor are the lower-income-countries that are home to the greatest proportion
of the world’s poorest people safely out of the low income country zone where extreme poverty
can be endemic.
India, Nigeria, and many other LMICs face enormous challenges of maintaining high and
inclusive economic growth, in view of highly challenging demographic, environmental, and
social factors. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the world’s poorest region and the one with the
highest headcount poverty rate (around 48%). South Asia is second (around 36%), and
Southeast Asia is third. There is scattered extreme poverty in other parts of the world (such as
in the Andean highlands, Haiti, indigenous communities in Central America, and small island
states).
While these pockets of poverty pose serious humanitarian and social challenges for the
people and places involved, they are a small proportion of the overall global challenge.

6

4.0 THEORY

There are two theory of poverty which are poverty is individual and poverty is structural.
(Matt Bruenig, 2014). Theory one is poverty is individual phenomena. Poverty occurs because
of people are lazy, uneducated, ignorant, or otherwise inferior in some manner. It would follow
that impoverished people are basically the same people every year if the theory is true. And if
that were true, we could whip poverty by helping that 15% of the population to figure things
out and climb out of poverty.
Thus, a program of heavy paternalistic life contracts to help this discrete underclass get
things together might conceivably end or dramatically reduce poverty. Many of way to help
poverty to climb out which is do more program for them.
The second theory of poverty is poverty is structural. This kind of poverty is because people
find themselves in holes in economic system that deliver them inadequate income. Because
individual lives are dynamic, people don’t sit in those holes forever. One year they are in a low-
income hole, but the next year they’ve found a job or gotten a promotion aren’t anymore.
But that hole that they were in last year doesn’t go away. Others inevitably find themselves
in that hole because it is a persistent defect in the economic structure. It follows from this that
impoverished people are not the same people every year. It follows further that the only way
to reduce poverty is to alter the economic structure as to reduce the number of low-income
holes in Africa.

7

5.0 TYPE AND DEFINITION OF POVERTY

There are different types of poverty which is relative poverty and absolute poverty. Relative
poverty, they have less money than those living around them to maintain the average standard
of living in the society in which they live. Relative poverty is considered the easiest way to
measure the level of poverty in an individual country. It is defined relative to the members of
a society and, therefore, differs across countries. People are said to be impoverished if they
cannot keep up with the standard of living as determined by society.
Relative poverty also changes over time. As the wealth of a society increases, so does the
amount of income and resources that the society deems necessary for proper conditions of
living. For example, if you were a family of four (two adults and two children) living in
America in 1963 with a yearly income less than $3,100, you would have been living in relative
poverty. By 1992, this amount had increased to $14,228.
Absolute poverty means some people much poorer. For them their income is less than what
people in UK earn in a week, which is legal minimum wage, earns in hour at £5.93 According
on World Bank “extreme poverty” is someone that earn 75p – £1.50 a day ($1.25 or 75p).
People who suffer the absolute poverty typically not enough money to pay basic need for
example foods, clothes, clean water and shelter. Across the rest of the world, absolute poverty
has halved over recent decades, but in Africa it has barely fallen.
United Nations’ (UN) Human Development Index, in 2009, 22 of 24 nations identified as
having “Low Human Development” the were in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, 34 of the 50
nations on the UN list of least developed countries are in Africa. In many nations, GDP per
capita is less than US$5200 per year, with the vast majority of the population living on much
less (according to World Bank data, by 2016 the island nation of Seychelles was the only
African country with a GDP per capita above US$10,000 per year).
In addition, Africa’s share of income has been consistently dropping over the past century
by any measure. In 1820, the average European worker earned about three times what the
average African did. Now, the average European earns twenty times what the average African
does. Although GDP per capita incomes in Africa have also been steadily growing, measures
are still far better in other parts of the world.

8

6.0 FACTORS OF POVERTY IN AFRICA
There were many factors that lead to poverty in Africa. It can be decided by several factors.
Impuissant economic.
Generally, researcher claim that mostly policy maker more focus on economic advance
without properly plan to analyze, measure and collate development on the other side such as
humanity, education, sustainable lifestyle of the poor people. In other words, they more focus
on do research-based data only on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) instead of Human
Development Index (HDI).
Next, lack of income. Previous study shown that GDP of Africa is 15 backwards less
that GDP USA which 60% part of Africa countries consider as low human development.
Largely income of the country generally depends on the exporting sector which provide
substantially to government finances that attract foreign investment and thus lead to gain in
productivity to the country. While this also lead to negative impact where unsustainable amount
of foreign aid lead to an appreciation of real exchange rate that can detrimental on export sector.
Besides, foreign direct investment (FDI) mostly sources from economic farm. In 1970-1990,
poverty have been rising due to the real decline in agricultural growth that experience by
several countries in Africa. Typically, it gives big impact to small-scale farmers and irrigators
in rural sector because 63% of population that lives in rural area were largely depends on
agricultural sector as main income.
Furthermore, geographic characteristic of countries itself were poor that predisposed to
weak economic growth. For example, much populations lives in countries were landlocked
which surrounded by national border on all sides. This may constitute an irreducible barrier to
trade and make it harder to develop an interconnected economy even country have good
relationship with neighbor countries.
Politic
Ineffective local governance and efficacious policies drafted by ineffective officials
seem to prevent people from poverty trap. In 2012, Corruption Perception Index state that 90%
of Africa Countries people live in poverty especially among poor people. This is because
government structure was controlled by ruling elite, educated, urban resident who are resistant
or indifferent to pro-poor policies. Hence, corruption in governance structure have occurred

9

because mostly political elites use power for their own personal benefit to gain aid resources
and debt relief.
Mostly, private sector owns wide-ranging control of resources, so it causes large range
of economic costly for government to expand public sector. Besides lack of democracy result
lowered quality of public services despite relatively high public expenditure. There were poor
in-service delivery handicapped firms through unreliable transport and power, inadequate
telecommunication networks and unreliable court. For example, a survey of Uganda firms
found that shortage of electricity that identified as most important constraint of firm growth.
Besides, African commercial court are more corrupt and as the result, firm face greater problem
of contract enforcement thus make market less competitive and reduce biggest potential gain
from trade.
Poor people relatively lack access to relevant skills and knowledge, educations and
personal development that could improve their livelihood. There also political minority which
people lack the visibility and voice to defend their own rights. In this situation, people gain
shortage capacity to influence social processes as public policy choice disregard by limiting
technology that focusing on agriculture sector.
Next, there is inadequate access to employment opportunities, inadequate physical assets such
as land and capital distribution among citizens. This lead to unequal income distribution where
rich people become more riches and poor people become poorer.
Civil War
It is arguable that countries with rich in natural resources maybe prone to civil wars dur
to ‘loot-seeking’ activities. It may become serious when this natural resource is the primary
commodity export of both countries. For example, Sudan was officially split into Sudan and
Republic of South Sudan in 2011. Recent this split country cause conflict in determining
lucrative oil revenues. Ironically, during civil wars, large amount of resources was spent on
weapon instead of using it for better used in alleviate poverty. Moreover, during civil war
poverty may rise due to destruction of capital such as road, production of manufactures or
financial services, displacement of people and increased insecurity.
Education
In this term, poverty arise due to low access of opportunities and lack of training skills
for developing human capital and education. If government emphasized on focusing more on

10

investment in human capital, particularly more advance in education it can help people to
increase in their earnings, quality of jobs and improving quality of life such as better utilization
of health facilities, shelter, water and sanitation. Without education, it would not broaden the
base understanding among people that could deter the pave way on promoting sustainable
human development. Thus, with rapid social progress, it could containment abuse of power by
the elite’s discretionary power and wider social equity among people.
All aspect that related to poverty of education were closely related with income poverty.
The features of education poverty include non-participation or low rates of participation of
children in schooling, low rates of continuation in schooling and high rates of drop-out and
failure in education. This could give the greater affect of an individual life that could experience
long term of unemployed. It can be concluded that poverty and economic constraint are the
reason many children from economically poor families gain low access of opportunity in
participating in schooling. Thus, large portion of families participated in low-wage
employment that have limited benefit, poor working environment which further lead to families
in poverty level.
Health
Main cause of poor health was because of Africa’s adverse climate. Along with these,
life expectancy was very low. Even though the country has high-fertility, it is equally offset by
high-mortality. The main cause of these high-mortality because of tropical disease like malaria.
Furthermore, these countries were lacking health facilities and commonly medical expenses
were expensive that barely poor people not affordable to access into it.
Natural and Geographical Characteristic
Country climate itself lead to leached soil and unreliable rainfall. It is state that 5 million
to 12 million hectares of land are lost annually due to severe degradation. Thus, soil degradation
will affect 65% of African croplands because losses of nitrogen and phosphorus. Besides,
Africa is semi-arid, which subject to long cycles rainfall. Impact of these, soil derive
disproportionately derive from hard soil which is low in micronutrients and varies considerable
between localities. Due to these natural disadvantages, like unpredictability of rainfall implies
high risk to agriculture because this condition restricted agricultural activities.
In addition, this sort of output from agriculture would cause people suffer from famine
mostly impact are poor people.

11

Other than that, some Africa countries gets flooded during Monsoon season each year which
seriously hindered the agricultural activities. Certain Africa countries also suffers from natural
disaster such as drought and hurricanes which causes to properties and life losses. Given these
geographically unfavourable situations, these countries are in fact standing on a disadvantage
route to escape from poverty trap.

12

7.0 EFFECT OF POVERTY IN AFRICA
Poverty is the most dangerous virus that can lead to a terrible disease in the third world
called under development. Poverty can lead to a slowdown in the development of a country.
Furthermore, studies show that the rate of killing cannot be compared to any disease of human
genesis. Poverty is worse than HIV / AIDS and malaria is said to be the highest killer disease.
Thus, if any social class discussion would not be incomplete if we do not talk about poverty
issue. Poverty also give effect or impact to the country in the world. For my topic, its only
focus on the impact of poverty in Africa. There are lots of impact of poverty in terms of
education, health and economy.
Education
Firstly, we all know that education is very important nowadays because it is beneficial
to an individual, society and nation. Unfortunately, statistics shows that African countries is
among the lowest in the world in primary school enrolment and about 33 million primary
school-aged children in Sub-Saharan Africa do not go to school. In addition, from 33 million
primary school-aged children, 18 million of these children are girls. In Sub-Saharan Africa,
only two-thirds of children who start primary school reach the final grade.
One of the reason why poor people in Africa cannot have proper education is because
of poverty. Parent cannot afford to send their children to school because they do not have
enough income. Plus, school expenses are very expensive such as school uniform, shoes,
books, stationary and others. Furthermore, serious poverty in Africa has resulted in high rate
of illiteracy. This is because, there are no educational infrastructure and few in experienced
personnel. This has affected mostly the elementary and post-secondary levels.
In the other hand, the relationship between poverty and education indicates the level
of readiness of children’s thinking. Poverty has adverse effects on children’s thinking. Some
children have a short focus, cannot think rationally, some of which are very easy to handle, and
some cannot effectively monitor their work quality. In fact, it is also important to consider how
emotions are related to poverty and education. Students living in poverty-affected families face
many situations that can affect them socially and emotionally. Studies show that many of these
students live in single households. When only one adult prepares for the needs of children, the
parent experiences a lot of stress; they struggle financially, and they often get insufficient rest.

13

Food Security
Next, poverty can cause lack of food security to the people in that particular area. Food
security define as “all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient
food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life” (World Food Summit, 1996;
USAID, 1992). For Africa countries their birth rate are high and it cause increasing in
population. Thus, the more people in the area, food availability become more limited.
Especially in urban area, since the availability of land is quite inadequate, so it is little bit hard
for poor dwellers in urban area to do activity like farming to support their food supply.
Poverty also impedes the ability of livestock farms to invest in productive assets and
agricultural technologies, resulting in adequate agricultural productivity. It is because they are
lack the appropriate technology, updated skills, modern technology, capacity building,
innovative techniques and farming tools just because of they are in poor state. Since they do
not have enough money to buy food, they must find another way to get food supply. In addition,
food insecurity and malnutrition can lead to health and development problem, with mothers
and children most exposed to the devastating effects.
Mothers who suffer from nutrient deficiency have a greater risk of giving birth and
delivering low weight babies who fail to survive. In fact, malnutrition is the leading cause of
death of more than 2.6 million children annually, one-third of deaths below five years and one-
third of the total deaths of children worldwide. This kind of disease always happen in Africa
countries is due to the lack of medical facilities, staff and infrastructure to address such
problems
Economy
For developing countries like Africa, their economy are not so good as develop
countries such as United States, Japan, United Kingdom and others. Even though African
countries economic condition not good as develop country, but economy development and
sustainability are very important to the country. Poverty has caused changes that arise on
consumer consumption. As the poor people do not have enough money to consume or product
or services, so they reduce consumption or their distribution of consumption kept constant.
National income comes from three aspects which are consumption, investment and
government spending. Thus, if people do not consume so much product or services it can effect
economic growth of the country. Previous studies show that Africa’s GDP is 15 less inhibited

14

that the United States GDP of 60% is part of the African country considered to be low human
development

15

8.0 CHALLENGES OF POVERTY REDUCTION IN AFRICA

John O. Okpara, (2011) described Africa as the one of the poorest region and it
poverty level is higher than other developing countries. Africa was facing many ups and
down since 1980-2000 which shown that they are the only region that obtain negative
growth of income per capita. The health conditions have contribute and worsened the
poverty issue.
The AIDS epidemic continues to cause chaos that spread to other region, as well as
the spread of malaria due to increasing drug resistance and the fragility of public health
care systems that was supported by the Pedro L. Alonso ; Marcel Tanner, (2013) that
particularly the expected decline both in funding and in the coverage of key interventions if
they are not replaced as needed. Igbinedion and Abusomwan (2014), also state that maybe
there is no other problem that dominates the poverty issues in Africa today than the incidence
of HIV/AIDS.
The spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan African is contributing to the new faces of
poverty. This shown a connected relationship between disease and poverty. Poverty provide
a fertile breathing path for the plague’s spread, and infection gave impacts to the economic,
social disintegration and impoverishment. HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death
specifically among the youth in many African countries and cause millions of orphanage
children and aged parents in many countries.

16

Source: unicef.org
The graph above shows the estimated numbers of people who are living with HIV
by region. The HIV disease has continued to booming and more than 10 million people
who are aged from 15-24 years old are infected. From the graph above, we can observe
that people in Eastern and Southern of Africa had dominated the highest numbers of people
living with HIV which are about 17.7 million and 6.97 million respectively in 2006,
followed by West/Central of Africa which about 2.44 million of people by 2006.
According to UNICEF, there are 2.9 million people have been estimated died due to HIV
in 2006.
In addition, along the diseases that occurs, the population in the country starts to
rise which is contribute to environmental stresses lead to the economic strains. This
somehow related to the poverty that occurs in Africa. The lack of effectiveness in prevention
of the diseases cause people to have boundaries to do and find a job. Hence, it makes their
lives harder to improve their living and trap themselves into poverty world. The disease
constraints their improvement which is lead them to live in poor.
The combination of initial endemic poverty, high inequality and low growth has
been a big challenges to the achievement of poverty reduction and most of the socio-
economic development in African sub-continent. The dull achievement of most of the

17

resource-rich economies of the sub-continent is often related to the resource curse. The
exploitation of mineral resources relies on capital-intensive technology. This significantly
shows that the government intervention with an appropriate action is needed to allocate the
resources hence to reduce the poverty (Thorbecke, 2013).
In Chad, after a new law had been created which demanding a part of the oil revenues
to be distributed to the fight against poverty (Ndang and Nan-Guer, 2011). Besides, an evidence
of corruption was found that directly slowed down the progress of poverty reduction. This gave
a massive impacts to African since there is an evidence that corruption is continuing to plague
oil and mineral production. This alternatively effected people of Africa’s living. Similarly, in
Guinea, the mining sector is characterised by large-scale corruption. Kaba et al.
(2011) describe in some detail corrupt transactions involving the government and foreign
companies.

Source: transperancy.org
The figure above shows the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of Africa. It is clearly
shown that most of the countries in Africa have scored the lowest index of CPI. The index that
have been scored reflects the corruption that occurs in public sector. Lower index’s score indicate
the occurrence of bribery, lack of penalty for corruption and public institutions that do not aware

18

and respond to people needs. This directly shows that the numbers of corruption continued to
rise if there is no regulation that have been implemented.
In addition, according to Erik Thorbecke (2013), the dynamic and inter-generational
poverty traps are influenced by household characteristics systematically correlated with
poverty is one of the challenges that are faced by the people to alleviate poverty. This
characteristics influences the next generation to live and follow the footsteps in the same way
as their past generations did. The non-presence of strong male models. This case might happen
because the younger generation did not given any opportunities to improve and enhance their
lives.
Thus, they have to bear and go through the same kind of living which is live in poverty.
This traps are hard to break which require an appropriate and suitable policy that will give a
strong impact that will match with the culture in Africa. A sub-culture of poverty infuses in
family values and influences the family members to follow the same destructive path of living
and risky behaviour from one generation to another.
Poverty reduction progress are constraints by many challenges and barriers that came
out from different dimensions and perspectives. The population pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa
also the challenges that induce the low progress of poverty reduction. In Africa, it records some
of the highest population growth rates in the developing world and it also with the fastest
growing urban inhabitants. The high growth rate tend to affect people in many ways. There
will be insufficient foods, infrastructures, resources and fragility of sanitation system.
The increasing growth rate lead to structural change in the economics. The structural
change that occurred in low income economies with high rates of growth had a negative impact
upon the potential for future aggregate economic growth (Mcmillan, Margaret S. and Rodrik,
D. (2011). People will experiences bad effects from the high level of growth rate and become
the victims of the extreme poverty which are including high mortality rates, high levels of
literacy and low level of life expectancy. The poverty poses a serious threat to development
efforts to reduce poverty.
According to Mcmillan, Margaret S. and Rodrik, D. (2011), poverty will give a massive
challenges to international development by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which
is aiming to cut by one-half the level of global poverty by 2015. By 2040 parallel with the
MDGs target, it aims to achieve the number of people living below the $1.25 in Sub-Saharan

19

countries may more than double that of South Asia and together supported by the effective
implementation of policies.
Also, the environmental degradation is one of the challenges that facing by Africa to
reduce poverty. The environmental degradation have a linkages with the high growth rate. The
increasing population forces people to find resources that indicates the movement of people
into marginal lands are often effected land, air and water. Their main sector which is agriculture
also contribute to the degradation.
The lack of technology in sanitation system, land cultivation and drainage system for
plants also contribute to environmental degradation. This mainly will lower the progress to
reduce the poverty in Africa. Many activities was carried out without provision against the
environment include bush burning, deforestation, and water pollution, which have strengthened
the poverty in Africa.

20

9.0 STRATEGIES/POLICIES TO REDUCE POVERTY IN AFRICA
According to World Bank Group report, more than 3.5 millions South Africans are pulled
out from poverty through fiscal policy which diverts resources to raise the income of the poor
through social spending programs. The function of fiscal policy is to redistribute income,
reduce inequality and substantially lower poverty in the country. The report shows that the
poorest in South Africa benefit from social spending programs such as spending on education
and health. Fiscal policy is working by taxing the income of the rich people more than poor
people and using social spending to boost the incomes of the poorest.
Based on Africa Development Bank (2013), infrastructure development is one of the
strategies to reduce poverty in Africa. The bank will invest in infrastructure that opens the
private sector’s potential, fight for gender equality and community participation. It will help to
improve the skills for competitiveness, ensuring that the skills are better suited to local job
market opportunities. Africa still has huge infrastructure needs. Infrastructure also promotes
human development by improving citizens’ access to social services and fostering more
inclusive societies.
According to Motshine A. Sekhaulelo (2014), by reforming churches in South Africa
(RCSA) can employ for poverty alleviation in the South African urban communities. It is stated
in the article that the author refers to the local churches that constitute a family of churches or
church organization by RCSA. The function of the RCSA are the churches stood at the forefront
of giving freely to the poor, caring for widows, taking in destitute orphans, visiting the sick,
and caring for the dying.
National minimum wage also is the strategy to reduce poverty. Merwe (2017) article
stated that the allocation of both social grants and a national minimum wage amount to a good
thing, reducing inequality, alleviating poverty and increasing spending power among the
country’s poorest, whether they are employed or not. With the national minimum wage
implementation, the poor at least have money to survive in daily life.
In addition, Leibbrandt, M., Wegner, E., Finn, A. (2011) said in their research paper that
education is the good policy for poverty reduction. Education spending has concentrated on
improving the situation of poor area and, to some extent, poor schools, while keeping relatively
high levels of funding for the formerly privileged schools. Given the high disparities in the
quality of these schools at the moment of the transition, such policies that are directed only at

21

the poor will take a long time to bridge the gap between schools. The same might be true for
inequality in general.
Lastly, based on Daouda Sembene (2017), there has been a growing interest in poverty
reduction across Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. It is stated that unconditional cash
transfers, conditional cash transfers, in kind transfer schemes and public works
programs are the strategies of poverty reduction in SSA.

22

10.0 CONCLUSION
Therefore we can see that poverty in Africa is a big issue that we must to address
quickly especially in the poorest place like Uganda, Mali, Malawi and Nigeria in which
thousand people are dying and struggle to live in a day also most of them were children’s. we
have learned that poverty is one the condition that people cannot survive for themselves and
cannot reach standard of living that means they can’t afford to get basic needs like clean water,
shelter, foods, and clothes.
We also learned that poverty affect mostly poor people, because of the little resources
they have, this means that poverty is an that’s harming poor people that want to get out from
poverty, but they can’t because they don’t have support from rich people. Even though there
are a lot of people trying to stop poverty, it is impossible to stop it, because there is no help
from rich countries. Lastly the most important thing that we have learned from poverty in
Africa is poverty can be stop, but to be able to stop it we must all support each other, with no
hate or anything that could harm us. For those that are willing to help don’t help because you
feel pressure, do it because you want to and your heart is telling you to do it.

23

11.0 REFERENCES
1. Matt Bruenig (2014). Two Theories of Poverty. Retrieved from :
http://www.demos.org/blog/7/28/14/two-theories-poverty
2. Bledsoe C. and A. Brandon. 1987. “Child Fostering and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan
Africa: Some Preliminary Questions and Answers.” Pp. 287–302 in Mortality and Society
in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by E. Van der Walle. New York: Oxford University Press.
3. Sachs, J. ; McArthur, J. W. ; Schmidt-Traub, G. ; Kruk, M. ; Bahadur, C. ; Faye, M.
; McCord, G. “Ending Africa’s Poverty Trap.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
vol. 2004 no. 1, 2004, pp. 117-240. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/eca.2004.0018
4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1987)
5. Erik Thorbecke; The Interrelationship Linking Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Sub-
Saharan Africa, Journal of African Economies, Volume 22, Issue suppl_1, 1 January
2013, Pages i15–i48,Retrieved from : https://doi.org/10.1093/jae/ejs028
6. Ndang T. S., Nan-Guer K. B.. Réduction de la Pauvreté et Croissance Economique:
Cas du Tchad, 2011 report to the AERC Collaborative Research Project on
Understanding the Links between Growth and Poverty in Africa
7. Kaba A., Keita M., Delamou J., Fofana S. S.. Lien entre Croissance Economique et
Réduction de la Pauvreté en Guinée: la Croissance Economique en Guinée est-elle
Pro-Pauvres?, 2011 Report to the AERC Collaborative Research Project on
Understanding the Links between Growth and Poverty in Africa.
8. Igbinedion, S.O. and Abusomwan, S.O. (2014), “Sub-Saharan Africa and the challenges
of poverty eradication: Contemporary issues and policy framework”, International
Journal of Development and Sustainability, Vol. 3 No. 12, pp. 2206-2217.
9. Mcmillan, Margaret S. and Rodrik, D. (2011), Globalization, structural change and
productivity growth. NBER working paper series. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of
Economic Research.
10. World Bank (2014), South Africa Economic Update: Fiscal Policy and Redistribution in
an Unequal Society. Retrieved from :
http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/southafrica/publication/south-africa-economic-
update-fiscal-policy-redistribution-unequal-society

24

11. African Development Bank (2013), At the Center of Africa’s Transformation: Ten Year
Strategy 2013 – 2022, AfDB: Tunis.
Retrieved from : https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Policy-
Documents/AfDB_Strategy_for_2013%E2%80%932022_-
_At_the_Center_of_Africa%E2%80%99s_Transformation.pdf
12. Sekhaulelo, M.A., 2014, ‘Reformed Churches in South Africa’s strategies for poverty
reduction in urban communities’, In die Skriflig 48(1), Art. #1788, 10 pages. Retrieved
from : https://indieskriflig.org.za/index.php/skriflig/article/view/1788/2838
13. Daouda Sembene (2017), African strategies to boost growth and combat poverty and
inequality. Retrieved from : https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/wp-
content/uploads/sites/22/2017/04/Daouda-Sembene-African-strategies-to-boost-growth-
and-combat-poverty-PPT-Presentation.pdf
14. Marelise van der Merwe (2017), SA’s poverty alleviation plans: Almost, but not quite.
Retrieved from : https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2017-02-23-sas-poverty-
alleviation-plans-almost-but-not-quite/#.WsJxz_lubIV
15. Leibbrandt, M., Wegner, E., Finn, A. (2011). The Policies for Reducing Income
Inequality and Poverty in South Africa. A Southern Africa Labour and Development
Research Unit Working Paper Number 64. Cape Town: SALDRU, University of Cape
Town. Retrieved from :
http://www.opensaldru.uct.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11090/79/2011_64.pdf?sequence=1
16. Teshome Abebe & Nana Quaicoe. (2014). Causes of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: A
layered theory approach to understanding significant factors. Journal of Economic and
International Finance, 6(6), 112-124.
17. Alex Addae-Korankye. (2014). Causes of Poverty in Africa: A Review of Literature.
American International Journal of Social Science, 3(7), 147-153.
18. Alex Hou Hong Ng, Abdul Ghani Farinda, Fock Kui Kan, Ai Ling Lim, Teo Ming Ting.
(2013). Poverty: Its Causes and Solutions. International Journal of Humanities and Social
Sciences, 7(8), 2471-2479.
19. UNICEF (2007) Retrieved from :
https://www.unicef.org/progressforchildren/2007n6/index_41821.htm
20. https://www.transparency.org
21. FRANCIS, T. (2001). THE CAUSES AND IMPACT OF POVERTY ON
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA .

25

22. Judith D. Kasper, M. E.-S. (2008). Effects of Poverty and Family Stress Over Three
Decades on Functional Status of Older African American Women. 63(4): S201–S210.
23. LSU Online. (2017, April 10). Retrieved from:
https://lsuonline.lsu.edu/articles/education/how-does-poverty-affect-education.aspx
24. John O. Okpara, (2011) “Factors constraining the growth and survival of SMEs in
Nigeria: Implications for poverty alleviation”, Management Research Review, Vol. 34
Issue: 2, pp.156-171,
Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171111102786