1. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Background Flying machine sheds, by their exceptionally nature, represent a one a kind test for flame security engineers. Extensive, open stunned territories with high rooftop decks house flying machine s worth a huge number dollars (1). Notwithsting a lot fly fuel, some support exercises that occur inside sheds give a large group start sources. Once fire breaks out, a considerable measure smoke is delivered with high temp-eratu-re brings poor spillage capacity troub in departure. Vast flying machine wings, fuselages platform likewise can possibly limit fire identification, concealment stream smoke, introducing a conceivably deadly mixed drink. For flame security configuration to be powerful, various issues should first be considered. These incorporate fire source, warm exchange, fire location caution, human conduct, smoke development, poisonous quality contamination. 1.2. Fire Cause Fire is an exceptional sort oxidation known as ignition. Oxidation is a procedure in which partic a fuel are joined with atoms oxygen delivering a blend gases vitality. At the point when this happens quickly, as in a fire, vitality is discharged as warmth light, a few gases end up noticeable as smoke. There are three essential components must be available for a fire to happen: fuel, warmth, oxygen. These three parts make up the fire triangle (appeared in figure 1.1) appropriate blend these three things perpetually brings a fire.

The chemical chain reaction between the fuel, heat, oxygen represents the fourth component the fire equation. We will refer to this as the fire square shown in figure 1.2.Anytime something burns, these four components are present. Preventing the combination these elements will prevent a fire. If one or more the elements is removed from the fire situation, the fire will be extinguished. 1.3. Classes Fire Fire is separated into five classes construct essentially in light the fuel that is consuming. This grouping framework encourages us evaluate dangers decide the best sort stifling specialist. It is additionally utilized for grouping, rating, testing fire dousers. The style class images are appeared in figure. 1.3. 1.3.1. Firefighting Procedure The safeguard clearing process starts by large subsequent to calling fire fice which is appeared in figure 1.4. After flame is identified the fire alert is transmitted to guarantee fire division reaction. At that point the choice to flame without anyone else’s input or to hold up flame warriors help is made by flame measure, sort, area the conditions the fire. After firefighters go to the let go put, the departure procedure is begun to clear the jeopardized individuals who are still inside the building. 1.4. Objectives Smoke Management Smoke management aims to extract the smoke produced from fire by means vntlation systems as shown in figure 1.5. This management provides: • Safe escape by extending the evacuation time for the occupants. 1.5. Hazards Smoke The smoke is produced due to the chemical reaction between fuels (gas, liquid, solid) the induced air. These chemical reactions produce hot gasses which have harmful effects on the occupants. 1.5.1. Toxicity The toxic products fires consist irritant (organic smoke products acid gases like hydrogen chloride “HCL”) narcotic components (carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide) which can cause disorientation, incapacitation or death, the effect depending upon the concentration length exposure. 1.5.2. High temp-eratu-re The temp-eratu-re burn is significant since it can cause burns by convection (to exposed skin lungs) by radiation. With long exposure times there is also the risk hyperthermia. 1.5.3. Reduce vizblty Smoke partic irritant products can reduce vizblty. While loss vizblty is not directly life threatening, it can prevent or delay escape thus expose people to the risk being overtaken by fire. 1.5.4. Back layering Backlayering is the smoke movement contrary to the vntlation direction. 1.6. Building Vntlation Vntlation is the way toward controlling the stream the smoke, warm, poisonous gases with the goal that they are discharged securely viably from a building. Appropriate vntlation additionally confines fire spread inside the structure. Vntlation close to the wellspring the fire can restrict the region contribution diminish the spread warmth lethal gases all the structure. Beginning vntlation enab more oxygen to achieve the fire; this can bring flashover or a fierce fiery surge. 1.7. Vntlation installation Vntlation installation is classified according to the direction smoke extraction. ? Horizontal vntlation, takes the advantage the doors, windows other openings at the same level fire ? Vertical vntlation involves making openings in ro s or floors so that heat, smoke, toxic gases can escape from the structure in a vertical direction.. 1.7.1. Natural vntlation As shown in figure 1.14, Natural vntlation depends on convection currents, wind, other natural air movement to allow contaminated atmosphere to flow out a structure. The heat a fire creates convection currents that move smoke gases up toward the ro or ceiling out away from the fire source. 1.1.1. Mechanical-vntlation Mechanical vntlation uses large high-powered fans which are shown in figure 1.15 to augment natural vntlation; that is, it involves the use of fans or o r powered equipment. re are three different methods mechanical vntlation. Negative- pressure vntlation uses fans called smoke ejectors to exhaust smoke hear from structure. 1.1.2. Impls vntlation As late jet fans or impulse fans have built up itself as new stard in vntlation. IVS are an elective decision to ducted mechanical concentrate frameworks, defeating majority issues identified with ducted frameworks. A drive fan is appeared in Figure 1.16 1.17. It comprises a hub fan with gulf and fumes direct vans and any required monitors and stream circulation control units. (12) 1.2. Present Work This study prsnt numricl anlyss for improving traditional system duct vntlation system to manage smoke produced due to push-back vehicle on fire in aircraft hangar. By studying effect changing different variab on vizblty, temp-eratu-re and v-e;o-ci-ty at human level to insure not to exceed limits stated by to apply evacuation plan. study is performed using Fire dynamic simulator to simulate 16 case studies in hangar airports in Brandenburg. hangar has outer dimensions 83.40 m width and 77.60 m depth and thus an inner area approx. 6,472 m2. hangar has a medium interior height approximately 18.20 m. hangar has one large wide aircraft (Airbus A330-300). ? 2. Chapter 2 Literature Review This chapter presents previous work in smoke control in Tunnels and high buildings using CFD and experimental studies. studies include effect various parameters on smoke control performance. 2.1. Applying Large Eddy Simulation in Study Fire and Smoke Spread at Underground Car Park Q Wang (13) uncovered impact smoke deplete openings game plan on smoke spread execution in passage fire semi-transverse smoke extraction mode. Results demonstrate that smoke back-layering can be essentially influenced by upstream openings course action in burrow fires. As more fumes openings added to upstream, smoke back-layering length winds up more grounded and smoke spread rate amazingly increment. In addition, most extreme smoke temp-eratu-re over fire source likewise amazingly increment because joined impact longitudinal wind current and measure smoke debilitate expanded in upstream from fire. Subsequently, fire hazard blocked tenants and passage structure increment in upstream. This exploration can add outline flame security fices and administration flame crisis in burrows with comparative conditions. 2.1.1. Case study A full scale half circle burrow display is worked with a length 1000m and a distance across 14.5m, similarly as appeared in Fig.1. The fire estimate in the model is taken to be 20MW, suggested by PIARC. It is an incomplete transverse vntlation framework that five smoke extraction openings are introduced adjacent the activity, the basic speed can be computed as: g is the gravity acceleration, m/s2; H is the equivalent diameter, m; T is the smoke temp-eratu-re, K; T0 is ambient temp-eratu-re, oK; ?o is the air density, kg/m3, Cp specific heat capacity at constant pressure, kJ/kg.oK; kg slope correction coefficient. And the calculated critical v-e;o-ci-ty is 2.0m/s after taking a descending slop degree (-4.5%) in account based on the practical design. Physically, due constraint space, fire disaster will inevitably bring massive smoke and xic substances. However, massive occupants vehic are blocked in upstream the fire location. The spread the reverse flow would seriously thread the blocked occupants’ lives. On the other hand, in the initial period, the v-e;o-ci-ty the vehic can be greater than the v-e;o-ci-ty the smoke front. Fir Dynmic Simlatr is used calculate the situations fire and smoke spread. The stware is a three-dimensional Comptationl Flud Dynmic plat m, developed by Nationl Instittute Standrd and Techlogy the United States, coupling with Larj Edd Simultion codes fire modeling. And Smoke view is the accessary post-processing visualization ol. Physically, solves numerically a form the Nvir-S ks equtin thermly driven flow. The Sub-Grid-Model (SGM) commonly used in is developed originally by Smagorinsky. The eddy viscosity is obtained by assuming that the smll scals are in equillbrum, by blancng the enrgy prductin and dispation. The turblnt visoity defined in is: The Smagorinsky constant Cs in simulation is flow dependent and has been optimized over a range from 0.1 0.25 various flow fields. The estimated velocities are tested at each time step ensure that the CFL condition is satisfied: 2.1.2. Results and discussion As expressed over, the numerical reproductions give three-dimensional fields the stream fac rs. Keeping in mind the end goal delineate the impacts the smoke course action techniques on the spread conduct the smoke produced in a fire occurrence, the longitudinal shapes temp-eratu-re focus along a focal plane at three certain time will be appeared. Longitudinal pri temp-eratu-re at stable condition are likewise subjectively introduced, with the higher qualities (in red) comparing 593oK and bring down qualities (in dull blue) relating 293oK. In addition, the smoke layer conveyance and the smoke spreading rate is additionally broke down, as talked underneath in detail. Smoke temp-eratu-re distribution Fig.2.3 presents the run the mill temp-eratu-re appropriation at the season 300s, 900s every one the cases. Seen from the figure, the smoke spreading locale extends with time in upstream and downstream. In addition, with the expanding smoke vents in upstream, the reverse smoke layer that surpass the basic temp-eratu-re 60oC is extended combined with the smoke dying down beneath basic stature 2m. Physically, these wonders infer that the including smoke vents in upstream will present a more grounded reverse that initiates increasingly smoke moving upward. Accordingly, these prompt the exping reverse spread rate in addition the fire dangers Fig.2.4 demonstrates the temp-eratu-re appropriation at the stature 2 m in the focal point the activity path in the two bearings various fumes mode at stable condition. With the including smoke debilitate openings in upstream, it can be seen in Fig.2.4 that 1) Temp-eratu-re in downstream is more steady than that in upstream; This may show s unsettling influence from the fumes stream the cross air; In addition, 2) The most extreme temp-eratu-re over the fire source, increments with the fumes openings moving upstream. Indeed, the exping upstream fumes stream would diminish the wind current coming the fire source. This can credit exped because coupling aftereffects cooling impact longitudinal wind current the measure smoke debilitate exped in upstream from the fire; Besides, 3) high temp-eratu-re locale is extended in upstream, which suggests more grounded reverse smoke incited by the exping upstream fumes stream. Furthermore, this definitely builds fire dangers the blocked tenants. Variation smoke layer Fig.2.5 demonstrates the smoke layer circulation in the focal point the movement path in the two bearings various fumes mode at stable condition. Every one these perceptions are predictable with the outcomes uncovered in Fig.3.All figures ought be numbered with Arabic numerals (1,2 … n). All pho s, outlines, charts graphs are be alluded as figures. Fig.2.6 demonstrates the smoke layer spread rate at various position along the passage focus in two ways. It can be seen in the figure: 1) the spread rate in two ways both decline strongly with the smoke moving far from the fire inside the 50m close to the fie. Coclusons In this work, a reenactment demonstrate was worked explore the impact smoke deplete techniques around the fire source on the smoke spread conduct in a long passage with semi-transverse smoke extraction mode.